 Regiomontanus

See Müller, Johann.
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▪ German mathematicianLatin name of Johannes Müller von Königsbergborn June 6, 1436, Königsberg, archbishopric of Mainz [Germany]died July 6, 1476, Rome, Papal States [Italy]the foremost mathematician and astronomer of 15thcentury Europe, a soughtafter astrologer, and one of the first printers.Königsberg means “King's Mountain,” which is what the Latinized version of his name, Joannes de Regio monte or Regiomontanus, also means. A miller's son, he entered the University of Leipzig (Leipzig, University of) at the age of 11 and in 1450 went to the University of Vienna (Vienna, University of). Regiomontanus was awarded a baccalaureate in 1452, but university regulations forced him to wait until he turned 21 to receive his master's degree. He eventually collaborated with his teacher, the mathematicianastronomer Georg von Peuerbach (Peuerbach, Georg von) (d. 1461), on various astronomical and astrological projects, including observations of eclipses and comets, the manufacture of astronomical instruments, and the casting of horoscopes for the court of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III.The papal legate to the Holy Roman Empire, Cardinal Bessarion (Bessarion), during a diplomatic visit to Vienna (1460–61), asked Peuerbach to write an epitome, or abridgment, of Ptolemy's Almagest to remedy the problems in George Of Trebizond's 1450 translation of and commentary on that great work. When Peuerbach died in 1461, Regiomontanus left for Rome as a member of Bessarion's extended household and completed Peuerbach's halffinished Epitome (c. 1462; first printed in 1496 as Epytoma…in Almagestum Ptolomei). His demonstration of an alternative to Ptolemy's models for the orbits of Mercury and Venus with respect to the Sun gave Nicolaus Copernicus (Copernicus, Nicolaus) (1473–1543) the geometric key to reorient planetary motions around the Sun. The Epitome is still one of the best critical introductions to Ptolemy's astronomy.Although he admired the Almagest, Regiomontanus was keenly aware that its geometric models led to inconsistencies (notably between predictions of planetary position and predictions of planetary size). To remedy these inconsistencies, he tried to eliminate the nonconcentric, twodimensional eccentrics and epicycles that were the mainstays of Ptolemy's models. Threedimensional models using concentric spheres would, he believed, yield good mathematical predictions of planetary positions without jeopardizing the physical principles of natural philosophy.In Italy (1461–c. 1465), Regiomontanus perfected his Greek, lectured at the University of Padua (Padua, University of), read widely in Bessarion's Greek library, and fought in the latter's long feud with George of Trebizond. The controversy prompted Regiomontanus to write his longest expository work, the “Defense of Theon Against George of Trebizond,” which later fueled rumours, entirely unsubstantiated, that George's sons had him poisoned.Regiomontanus thoroughly mastered Hellenistic and medieval mathematics. His own contributions to the subject range from the formalization of plane (trigonometry) and spherical trigonometry (trigonometry) in De triangulis omnimodis (1464; “On Triangles of All Kinds”) to his discovery of a Greek manuscript (incomplete) of Arithmetica, the great work of Diophantus of Alexandria (fl. c. AD 250). His writings also show his interest in perfect numbers (numbers equal to the sum of their proper divisors), the Platonic solids (Platonic solid), and the solution of quadratic, cubic, and higherdimensional equations.From 1467 to 1471 Regiomontanus lived in Hungary as astrologer to King Matthias I of Hungary and Archbishop Janós Vitéz. In 1471 he moved to Nürnberg, Germany, where he established an instrument shop, set up a printing press, and continued his planetary observations in collaboration with the merchant Bernhard Walther. He announced plans to print 45 works, mostly in the classical, medieval, and contemporary mathematical sciences. However, only nine editions appeared, including Peuerbach's Theoricae novae planetarum (1454; “New Theories of the Planets”), his own attack (“Disputationes”) on the anonymous 13thcentury Theorica planetarum communis (the common “Theory of the Planets”), his German and Latin calendars, and his 896page Ephemerides (daily planetary positions for 32 years, which showcase his computational skills). His editions pioneered the printing of astronomical diagrams and numerical tables. Several of the works that he prepared and had hoped to print, including editions of Euclid and Archimedes, his own astronomical Tabulae directionum (1467; “Tables of Directions”), and a table of sines that he had computed to seven decimal places, proved influential when circulated in the 15th and 16th centuries in manuscript and in print.In 1475 Regiomontanus traveled to Rome to advise Pope Sixtus IV about calendar reform (calendar). He died there the following year, probably from the plague precipitated by the Tiber River overflowing its banks.Michael ShankAdditional ReadingThe fundamental biography remains Ernst Zinner, Leben und Wirken des Joh. Müller von Königsberg genannt Regiomontanus (2nd rev. and enlarged ed., 1968); a not always exact English translation is Ezra Brown (trans.), Regiomontanus: His Life and Work (1990). A still useful bibliography is found in Edward Rosen, “Regiomontanus, Johannes,” in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, vol. 11 (1975), pp. 348–352.Bessarion's patronage of Regiomontanus is discussed in Michael H. Shank, “The Classical Scientific Tradition in FifteenthCentury Vienna,” in F. Jamil Ragep, Sally P. Ragep, and Steven Livesey (eds.), Tradition, Transmission, Transformation: Proceedings of Two Conferences on PreModern Science Held at the University of Oklahoma (1996), pp. 115–136.The most accessible, concise discussion of Regiomontanus's astronomical work and its impact on Copernicus appears in N.M. Swerdlow, “Astronomy in the Renaissance,” in Christopher Walker (ed.), Astronomy Before the Telescope (1996), pp. 187–230.Regiomontanus's mathematical contributions are discussed in Menso Folkerts, “Regiomontanus's Role in the Transmission and Transformation of Greek Mathematics,” in F. Jamil Ragep, Sally P. Ragep, and Steven Livesey (eds.), Tradition, Transmission, Transformation (1996), pp. 89–113.Michael Shank* * *
Universalium. 2010.