preference

preference
/pref"euhr euhns, pref"reuhns/, n.
1. the act of preferring.
2. the state of being preferred.
3. that which is preferred; choice: His preference is vanilla, not chocolate.
4. a practical advantage given to one over others.
5. a prior right or claim, as to payment of dividends or to assets upon dissolution.
6. the favoring of one country or group of countries by granting special advantages over others in international trade.
[1595-1605; < ML praeferentia. See PREFER, -ENCE]
Syn. 3. selection, pick. See choice.

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      trick-taking card game for three players, widely played throughout eastern Europe, popular in Austria, and regarded since the early 19th century as the national card game of Russia.

      Preference, descended from ombre, took its name from its order of preference for the trump suit: spades (low), clubs, diamonds, hearts (high). This feature, though now common to many card games, was borrowed from the 18th-century game of Boston whist. Another distinctive feature of the game is that not only the declarer (the player who wins the bid and thus declares trump) but also each opponent is obliged to take a minimum number of tricks, which thus imparts a novel twist to the nature of partnership play required from the two defenders.

      The modern game is far more complicated than that still recorded in most American rule books (such as the many “Hoyles”), and there are numerous variations. Since Russian card play emerged from its social obscurity under the communist regime, clubs and societies devoted to the game have sprung up, each with its own interpretation of the rules.

David Parlett

Additional Reading
Reliable sources for rules include Joli Quentin Kansil (ed.), Bicycle Official Rules of Card Games (2002); David Parlett, The A–Z of Card Games, 2nd ed. (2004; 1st ed. published as Oxford Dictionary of Card Games, 1992); and Barry Rigal, Card Games for Dummies, 2nd ed. (2005).

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • préférence — [ preferɑ̃s ] n. f. • preferance v. 1458; de préférer 1 ♦ Jugement ou sentiment par lequel on place une personne, une chose au dessus des autres; jugement plus favorable. Les préférences de chacun. « Sur quelque préférence une estime se fonde »… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • preference — pref·er·ence / pre frəns, fə rəns/ n 1: the right to prior payment of a debt with preference over the creditors of the heirs or legatees Louisiana Civil Code 2: the transfer of an insolvent debtor s interest in property to a creditor for an… …   Law dictionary

  • Preference — (also called taste or penchant ) is a concept, used in the social sciences, particularly economics. It assumes a real or imagined choice between alternatives and the possibility of rank ordering of these alternatives, based on happiness,… …   Wikipedia

  • Preference — (fr., spr. Preferangs), Stichspiel, mit Deutscher Karte unter drei, gewöhnlich aber unter vier Personen, so daß der Geber beim Spiele nicht betheiligt ist, gespielt. Der Geber läßt zur rechten Hand abheben, legt die zwei obersten Blätter (Talon)… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Preference — Préférence Voir « préférence » sur le Wiktionnaire …   Wikipédia en Français

  • preference — Preference. s. f. Choix que l on fait d une personne, d une chose plustost que d une autre. Preference certaine, incontestable. juste preference. demander, avoir, obtenir la preference. disputer, emporter la preference. donner la preference.… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Preference — Pref er*ence, n. [Cf. F. pr[ e]f[ e]rence.] 1. The act of Preferring, or the state of being preferred; the setting of one thing before another; precedence; higher estimation; predilection; choice; also, the power or opportunity of choosing; as,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • preference — a payment by a debtor made during a specified period (90 days or one year) prior to the filing that favors one creditor over others. Preference payments can usually be recovered and returned to the debtor s estate (Glossary of Common Bankruptcy… …   Glossary of Bankruptcy

  • preference — [n1] first choice alternative, choice, cup of tea*, desire, druthers*, election, favorite, flash*, groove, inclination, option, partiality, pick, predilection, prepossession, propensity, say, say so*, selection, top, weakness; concepts 20,529,709 …   New thesaurus

  • preference — [pref′ər əns] n. [MFr préférence < ML praeferentia < L praeferens, prp. of praeferre, to PREFER] 1. a preferring or being preferred; greater liking 2. the right, power, or opportunity of prior choice or claim 3. something preferred; one s… …   English World dictionary

  • Préférence — (franz., spr. āngß , »Vorzug«), Kartenspiel zwischen drei Personen, das mit der deutschen Karte gespielt wird, und in dem die Mehrheit der Stiche den Gewinn entscheidet. Es hat seinen Namen von dem Vorzug, der darin einer Farbe vor der andern… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

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