/puy"theuhm/, n.
one of the two cities built by Israelite slaves in Egypt. Ex. 1:11. Cf. Raamses.

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▪ ancient city, Egypt
Egyptian  Per-Atum  or  Per Tum (“Estate of Atum”) , probably modern  Tall al-Maskhūṭah 

      ancient Egyptian (Egypt, ancient) city located near Ismailia in Al-Ismāʿīliyyah (Ismāʿīliyyah, Al-) muḥāfaẓah (governorate) and mentioned in the Bible (Exodus 1:11) as one of the treasure houses built for the pharaoh by the Hebrews prior to the Exodus. Although Pithom has been identified as Tall al-Maskhūṭah, excavations at the site have revealed that, aside from an unfortified outpost of the Hyksos period (see ancient Egypt: The Second Intermediate period (Egypt, ancient)), the earliest layers do not predate the 7th century BCE. The monuments of Ramses II that in the past have been used as a dating criterion for the site were apparently transported to Tall al-Maskhūṭah, perhaps by the kings of the 30th dynasty (380–343 BCE; see ancient Egypt: The 28th, 29th, and 30th dynasties (Egypt, ancient)), to adorn this later city.

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Universalium. 2010.

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