/floh"em/, n.
the part of a vascular bundle consisting of sieve tubes, companion cells, parenchyma, and fibers and forming the food-conducting tissue of a plant.
[ < G (1858), irreg. < Gk phló(os) bark (var. of PHLOIÓS) + -ema deverbal n. ending]

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or bast

Plant tissues that conduct foods made in the leaves to all other parts of the plant.

Phloem is composed of several types of specialized cells, including sieve-tube cells and phloem fibers. Sieve tubes (columns of sieve-tube cells), which have perforated areas in their walls, provide the main channels in which food substances travel. Phloem fibers are long, flexible cells that make up the soft fibers used commercially (e.g., flax and hemp).

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▪ plant tissue
also called  bast 
 tissues in plants that conduct foods made in the leaves to all other parts of the plant. Phloem is composed of various specialized cells called sieve tubes (sieve tube), companion cells, phloem fibres, and phloem parenchyma cells. Primary phloem is formed by the apical meristems (zones of new cell production) of root and shoot tips; it may be either protophloem, the cells of which are matured before elongation (during growth) of the area in which it lies, or metaphloem, the cells of which mature after elongation. Sieve tubes of protophloem are unable to stretch with the elongating tissues and are torn and destroyed as the plant ages. The other cell types in the phloem may be converted to fibres. The later maturing metaphloem is not destroyed and may function during the rest of the plant's life in plants such as palms but is replaced by secondary phloem in plants that have a cambium.

      Sieve tubes, which are columns of sieve-tube cells having perforated, sievelike areas in their lateral or end walls, provide the channels in which food substances travel. Phloem parenchyma cells, called transfer cells and border parenchyma cells, are located near the finest branches and terminations of sieve tubes in leaf veinlets, where they also function in the transport of foods. Phloem fibres are flexible long cells that make up the soft fibres (e.g., flax and hemp) of commerce.

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Universalium. 2010.

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