nitrile

nitrile
/nuy"tril, -treel, -truyl/, n. Chem.
any of a class of organic compounds with the general formula RC_=N.
[1840-50; NITR- + -ile, perh. var. of -YL]

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also called  Cyano Compound,  

      any of a class of organic compounds having molecular structures in which a cyano group (−C ≡ N) is attached to a carbon atom (C). Nitriles are colourless solids or liquids with distinctive odours.

      Acrylonitrile is produced in large quantities by a process called ammoxidation that depends on the oxidation of propylene in the presence of ammonia and a catalyst. Acrylonitrile constitutes an important component of several polymeric substances, including the acrylic textile fibres and synthetic rubbers and thermoplastic resins.

      Some nitriles are manufactured by heating carboxylic acids (carboxylic acid) with ammonia in the presence of catalysts. This process is used to make nitriles from natural fats and oils, the products being used as softening agents in synthetic rubbers, plastics, and textiles and for making amines. Nitriles are also formed by heating amides with phosphorous pentoxide. They can be reduced to primary amines through the action of lithium aluminum hydride or hydrolyzed to carboxylic acids in the presence of either an acid or a base.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • nitrile — [ nitril ] n. m. • 1849; de nitre ♦ Chim. Composé (acyclique) renfermant le radical CN. Nitrile formique : acide cyanhydrique. ● nitrile nom masculin Nom générique des dérivés R―C≡N de l acide cyanhydrique. (Découverts en 1834 par Pelouze, les… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Nitrile — Ni trile (? or ?), n. [See {Nitro }.] (Chem.) Any one of a series of compounds bearing the cyanide radical ({ CN}); particularly, one of those cyanides of alcohol radicals which, by boiling with acids or alkalies, produce a carboxyl acid, with… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Nitrile — Nitrile,   organische Verbindungen mit der allgemeinen Formel R C≡N (R Alkyl oder Arylrest), die als Ester der Blausäure aufgefasst werden können. Die Namen der Nitrile werden mit der Vorsilbe Cyan oder der Nachsilbe cyanid gebildet oder von der… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Nitrile — Nitrile, sind stickstoffhaltige organische Verbindungen, welche aus den Ammoniaksalzen einbasischer[4] organischer Säuren durch Verlust von 4 Atomen Wasser entstehen. Die N. der fetten Säuren werden durch trockene Destillation der Ammoniaksalze… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Nitrīle [1] — Nitrīle (Nitrilbasen), s. Basen …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Nitrīle [2] — Nitrīle (Säurenitrile), chemische Verbindungen, die als Alkoholcyanide betrachtet werden können, da sie die Cyangruppe CN an ein Alkyl gebunden enthalten, wie z. B. Acetonitril oder Methylcyanid CH3.CN. Die N. entstehen durch Destillation der… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • nitrile — s.m. [der. di nitro, col suff. ile2]. (chim.) [nome generico di composti considerabili sia come esteri dell acido cianidrico sia come prodotti di disidratazione di un amide] ▶◀ nitrogruppo …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • nitrile — [nī′tril, nītrīl΄] n. [ NITR + ILE] an organic cyanide of the general formula R·C⋮N, yielding the corresponding acid and ammonia on hydrolysis …   English World dictionary

  • Nitrile — This article is about the group of organic compounds. For the synthetic rubber product, see Nitrile rubber. The structure of the nitrile group A nitrile is any organic compound that has a C≡N functional group.[1] …   Wikipedia

  • Nitrile — Allgemeine Formel eines Nitrils. Der Rest R ist ein Organyl Rest (Alkyl Rest, Aryl Rest, Alkylaryl Rest etc. oder – seltener – ein Acyl Rest. Nitrile sind eine Gruppe chemischer Verbindungen mit der allgemeinen Formel R C≡N. Die funktionelle… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Nitrile — Le groupement nitrile correspond à ≡N ( C≡N est le groupe cyano ou carbonitrile[1]) et les règles IUPAC de dénomination des nitriles[2] sont claires : par exemple, CH3 C≡N est l acétonitrile ou éthanenitrile ou cyanométhane CH3CH2 C≡N est le …   Wikipédia en Français

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