New Brunswick

New Brunswick
1. a province in SE Canada, E of Maine. 664,525; 27,985 sq. mi. (72,480 sq. km). Cap.: Fredericton.
2. a city in central New Jersey. 41,442.

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Province (pop., 2001: 729,498), one of the four Maritime Provinces, eastern Canada.

Bordered by the U.S. and the Canadian province of Quebec, it lies on the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Northumberland Strait (east) and the Bay of Fundy (south); it is connected with Nova Scotia by the Isthmus of Chignecto. Its capital, Fredericton, is home to the University of New Brunswick (founded 1785, one of Canada's oldest universities). New Brunswick was part of the original Acadia; it was colonized by the French in the 18th century, then captured by the British, who expelled the French-speaking Acadians in 1755 and incorporated the area into Nova Scotia. After the American Revolution, some 14,000 loyalists from the U.S. settled there. As a result of this large influx, it was separated from Nova Scotia, and the province of New Brunswick was established in 1784. In 1867 it became an original member of the Dominion of Canada. Forests cover 90% of the province, whose major cities include Saint John and Moncton. Forestry and lumbering are the largest industries, followed by commercial fishing.

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      city, seat of Middlesex county, eastern New Jersey, U.S. It lies on the Raritan River, at the terminus of the old Delaware and Raritan Canal, 21 miles (33 km) south-southwest of Newark. The site, first known as Prigmore's Swamp, was settled in 1681 by John Inian. Called Inian's Ferry (1713), it was renamed about 1724 for George I of England, who was also the duke of Brunswick. George II granted it a town charter in 1730.

      During the American Revolution, General George Washington (Washington, George)'s troops, retreating from New York, occupied the town in 1776, evacuating at the approach of the British under General William Howe (Howe, William Howe, 5th Viscount), who remained there for about seven months. Washington returned after the Battle of Monmouth (1778) and, while there, issued orders for the march south culminating in the victorious Battle of Yorktown (Yorktown, Siege of). Throughout the revolutionary period the town's port was a base for privateers who preyed upon British ships around Manhattan.

      The Camden and Amboy (later the Pennsylvania) Railroad reached New Brunswick in 1838. Since the late 19th century, when James W. and Robert W. Johnson (Johnson, Robert Wood) established a firm (Johnson & Johnson) to make adhesive tape and surgical dressings, New Brunswick has been a major producer of hospital supplies and pharmaceuticals. The city's other manufactures include vitamins and health food, batteries, plastics, toys, packaging, and automobile parts.

      Rutgers University (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey) was founded there as Queen's College in 1766 and was made the state university in 1945. New Brunswick Theological Seminary (founded 1784), the oldest theological school in the United States, has been in the city since 1810. On November 6, 1869, New Brunswick was the scene of the first intercollegiate football game, between Rutgers and Princeton (Princeton University). Inc. city, 1784. Pop. (1990) 41,711; (2000) 48,573.

New Brunswick, flag of   Canadian province located on the eastern seaboard of the North American continent. It is Canada's only officially bilingual province, French and English having equal status. It was one of the four original provinces making up the national confederation in 1867. Together with Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, it forms the regional grouping known as the Maritime Provinces. New Brunswick has a roughly rectangular shape, about 210 miles (340 km) from north to south and 185 miles (300 km) from east to west. It is bounded to the north by the province of Quebec, to the east by the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Saint Lawrence, Gulf of) and the Northumberland Strait, and to the south by the Bay of Fundy (Fundy, Bay of). The latter two bodies of water are separated by the narrow neck of the Chignecto Isthmus, which joins New Brunswick to Nova Scotia, to the southeast. To the west lies the U.S. state of Maine.

      Chartered by King George III, the province was named for the royal house of Brunswick, and its capital, Fredericton, was named for King George III's son Frederick. While New Brunswick has contributed significantly to the national life of Canada, it is one of the smaller provinces and has always occupied a lesser role in the national economy. Its beautiful forests, rivers, lakes, and seashore—attractions for tourists, hunters, and sport fishermen—have remained relatively unspoiled. Area 28,150 square miles (72,908 square km). Pop. (2001) 729,498; (2006) 729,997.


Relief, drainage, and soils
  The land rises abruptly and in some places spectacularly out of the Bay of Fundy in the south and undulates northward in a series of rolling hills and rocky outcroppings. Plains and flatlands are limited to sea-level marshlands in the southeast, river-valley floodplains, and low-lying lands adjacent to the beaches of the east coast. There are no true mountains, although ranges of rugged and sometimes steep hills run east-west a few miles north of the Fundy coast and in the north-central part of the province, where the highest elevation is Mount Carleton (Carleton, Mount) at 2,680 feet (817 metres).

      This hilly landmass is cut in every direction by an extensive river system. The St. Croix River (Saint Croix River) follows the southwestern boundary. The 418-mile- (673-km-) long St. John River (Saint John River), with its numerous tributaries, drains the entire northwestern, central, and south-central parts of the province. The high tides of the Bay of Fundy reverse the rapids at the river's mouth at the city of Saint John and raise the level of the lower river for up to 95 miles (150 km) inland. Additionally, a number of lake-size arms branch off the lower St. John on its eastern side, the largest of which is Grand Lake, about 60 miles (100 km) inland. The eastern part of the province is drained by the Restigouche River in the north, the many branches of the Miramichi in the north-central area, and the shorter Petitcodiac in the southeast. Spring flooding is common in many of the rivers.

      The majority of soils are acidic and low in nutrients. Most of the well-drained soils are classified as podzols or luvisols. Almost all the cultivable soils have moderate to severe limitations that restrict the range of crops or require special conservation practices.

      Clearly distinguishable seasons characterize the climate. Winters are snowy and cold, and summers are mild and pleasant. The fall, with alternating cold nights and sunny warm days, is particularly spectacular, as the blazing colours of deciduous foliage contrast with the solid dark greens of conifers. Temperatures at Fredericton range from an extreme low of −35 °F (−37 °C) to an extreme high of 99 °F (37 °C). In January the mean daily temperature is 14 °F (−10 °C), and in July it is 67 °F (19 °C). Temperatures are more moderate in the southern coastal regions. Normal annual rainfall is slightly above 30 inches (800 mm), and snowfall averages about 115 inches (2,900 mm); annual precipitation (which factors in snowmelt) amounts to about 43 inches (1,100 mm).

Plant and animal life
 Forests cover the majority of the province, and coniferous trees commonly found in northern temperate climates—such as balsam fir, red and black spruce, pine, and hemlock—constitute the principal growth. Deciduous stands, especially along the river valleys, consist of sugar and red maple, trembling aspen, and yellow and white birch. Wild blueberries and cranberries are found commonly on thin soils, especially in southwestern areas. The forests support substantial herds of white-tailed deer, moose, and small animals such as porcupines and raccoons. The rivers and coasts lie in the eastern flyway of numerous migrating birds, best seen in early to mid-spring and late summer.


Population composition
      The English-speaking majority consists largely of the descendants of Scottish, Irish, and English settlers of the 18th and 19th centuries, along with those descended from loyalists who fled the American Revolution. It is concentrated in the southern and western parts of the province. The French-speaking minority, which has grown to about one-third of the population, consists of the descendants of 17th-century Acadian (Acadia) settlers augmented by French Canadians from Quebec, and it is concentrated in the northern and eastern counties. Descendants of the province's first inhabitants, the Indians (First Nations), remain in small numbers on federally administered reserves (reservations) along the east coast or in the St. John valley, or they have integrated into neighbouring communities. There are several thousand blacks, largely descendants of loyalist slaves, in the province as well. In the 20th century, small contingents of eastern European, Dutch, German, Italian, and Asian immigrants added a multicultural dimension, mostly in the larger urban areas. Roman Catholics outnumber Protestants, who are mostly of the Baptist, United Church of Canada, Anglican, Pentecostal, and Presbyterian denominations.

Settlement patterns
      Settlement began on the coastline and rivers, where early settlers followed fishing and agricultural pursuits. Small towns tended to spring up along the river systems, which supported sawmills and general stores. Saint John, an all-season ocean port situated at the mouth of the St. John River, has been the largest city from earliest times. Moncton, (Moncton) in the southeast, emerged in the late 19th century as a railroad and distribution centre. Fredericton, the capital and an administrative, educational, and commercial city, is near the geographic centre of the province. Miramichi, located on the river of the same name, is an industrial city that produces paper and other forest products. Bathurst, Campbellton, and Edmundston, small bilingual cities in the north with French-speaking majorities, all developed on the basis of the pulp and paper industry. In the 1950s the Canadian armed forces established Base Gagetown, covering several thousand acres between Fredericton and Saint John, and they built the modern town of Oromocto for army personnel.

Demographic trends
      Population growth was relatively slight in the early 21st century. Many young adults, drawn by the employment opportunities and higher salaries of central Canadian cities and western oil fields, continued to migrate out of New Brunswick. Within the province, cities became the employment centres, although the common practice of commuting from rural homes or from suburban areas prevented significant urban population growth.

      New Brunswick has a resource-based economy dependent largely on forestry, mining, and fishing. Tourism, agriculture, small-scale manufacturing, and a growing service sector provide balance and diversity. Real economic growth tends to be at or above the regional average for the Atlantic Provinces region, reflecting expansion in oil refining, telecommunications, computer software development, and natural gas distribution.

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
      Only about one-fifth of the landmass of the province is suitable for agriculture, and less than one-third of that is actually under cultivation. Floodplains, which represent only a tiny percentage of the provincial landmass, possess the richest soils. They are suitable for truck farming, which is concentrated near the southern cities, notably in the lower St. John River valley. Small family farms remain the most numerous type among the province's approximately 3,000 farms, but their numbers are dwindling, and thousands of acres of previously cultivated land are returning to forest. The largest farms specialize in the leading cash crops, dairy products and potatoes, the former concentrated in south-central and southeastern areas and the latter in the upper St. John valley. Both benefit from large-scale food-processing plants in their respective areas. Poultry, cattle, hogs, eggs, maple products, and blueberries represent other significant commodities. Provincial policy focuses on soil conservation and new product development.

      About four-fifths of the provincial landmass is forested, and the forest industry is the province's largest. Pulp and paper production represents the industry's largest single component; several cities and towns, mostly in the north, depend on large pulp and paper mills as their major employers. Sawmills are widespread as well, and other forest products include lumber, plywood, chipboard, fuel, and Christmas trees. The forests also provide a wide range of jobs in related fields. About half of the forested land is in the public domain, although large corporate users are responsible for reforestation and management of assigned districts. Wood supply and fluctuating foreign markets emerged as major challenges in the early 21st century.

      The fishing and fish-processing industry continues to be important in the provincial economy. It employs numerous workers in the main fishing areas, including the Bay of Fundy, the Northumberland Strait, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Lobster, crab, scallops, herring, cod, mackerel, and a variety of other North Atlantic species make up the bulk of the catch. The industry is a volatile one, subject to seasonal and longer-term shifts in fish stocks, foreign competition, weather conditions, and credit availability; it has thus become highly dependent on government regulation and support. The development of aquaculture has supplemented the fisheries with hatcheries that produce salmon, trout, mussels, and oysters.

Resources and power
      The discovery in New Brunswick of rich deposits of zinc and potash in the second half of the 20th century elevated the importance of mining in the provincial economy. The northeast, especially around Bathurst, produces zinc, copper, lead, silver, and peat moss. A lead-smelting operation is at Belledune, a port near Bathurst, and potash and natural gas are found near Sussex. Nationally, the province ranks high in the production of antimony, bismuth, potash, peat, zinc, silver, and lead. Coal, gypsum, and sulfur also are significant.

      The provincially owned electric power utility vigorously expanded power generation in the 20th century. Hydroelectric developments along the St. John River system were supplemented by coal- and oil-fired steam-generating units and by the construction of a nuclear power station at Point Lepreau, southwest of Saint John. A power grid links the New Brunswick utility with all the neighbouring provinces and the United States and permits the export of excess capacity. A natural gas pipeline, carrying offshore gas to New England, also crosses the province.

      The bulk of manufacturing industries in New Brunswick produce food products, paper, and wood products. Firms also manufacture metal goods, mineral products, and machinery. A number of small computer software companies operate in several of the province's cities as well. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries both the value of manufactured goods and production volume grew significantly. Canada's largest oil refinery, located at Saint John, experienced unprecedented growth in response to increasing demand throughout North America.

Services, labour, and taxation
 By the early 21st century the service sector employed more than three times as many people as did manufacturers. Tourism is a leading service industry, as the province's natural and cultural attractions, including many picturesque drives, draw many visitors. The province's advanced telephone system and bilingual workforce have attracted a telemarketing industry with call centres in several towns and cities. In addition, the federal government, through the work of its National Research Council, has encouraged the development of the information technology industry in New Brunswick.

      Employment levels in the province are subject to seasonal variation, and unemployment rates in the early 21st century were slightly higher than the rates in Canada as a whole. Nevertheless, rates of employment showed improvement over past decades. Trends in the previous century had kept unemployment rates fairly high: a lack of diversification in the resource-based economy, high transportation costs, and a decline in manufacturing had reduced opportunities and contributed to significant out-migration.

      The province derives the overwhelming majority of its revenue from various taxes. These include corporate and personal income taxes, capital taxes, a value-added sales tax, a real property tax, gasoline and fuel taxes, and a tobacco tax. The provincial budget also depends on federal equalization grants and other federal transfer payments. Such programs support the provision of economic infrastructure, such as in transportation and research, and have contributed substantially to the development of up-to-date amenities and services comparable to those found elsewhere in Canada.

Transportation and telecommunications
 At Saint John, a modern ocean port and the province's largest industrial centre, oil refining, shipbuilding, and papermaking are major employers. The city's port facilities are able to handle container ships, and they play an important role in exporting Canadian goods, especially in winter months when traffic on the St. Lawrence Seaway (Saint Lawrence River and Seaway) is curtailed. Moncton and Saint John remain major transportation and communication centres despite the reduced importance of railroads, and Moncton has emerged as an important regional distribution centre. Regional and national airlines provide regular service to all the larger cities, and a bus service links most urban centres. Heavily traveled highways link New Brunswick and the other Maritime Provinces with central Canada and the United States. The 8-mile (13-km) Confederation Bridge connects New Brunswick to Prince Edward Island.

      New Brunswick possesses a technically advanced telecommunications infrastructure. Cable and satellite television services, wireless telephone service, and Internet access are all widely available. In addition, all public schools have access to the Internet.

Government and society

Constitutional framework
 The provincial government follows the constitutional forms of a Canadian province within the framework of the Canadian constitution. A lieutenant-governor, appointed by the governor-general of Canada on the advice of the Canadian prime minister, represents the queen and is the titular head of government. A premier and a cabinet exercise real power. The premier is the leader of the political party with the most elected members in the province's one-chamber legislature. Three national political parties are active. But although the New Democratic Party established a small foothold in the late 20th century, the Liberals (Liberal Party of Canada) and Progressive Conservatives (Progressive Conservative Party of Canada) continued their dominance into the 21st century.

Health and welfare
      The province has a network of modern hospitals, the largest of which are regional hospitals with specialized facilities and equipment. Hospital and medical care are both publicly funded and are supported by a provincial sales tax. Social services are administered by the provincial government, and the same standards apply provincewide. A provincial housing authority plans and develops projects for low-income families and for the elderly. Health, education, and social welfare programs all receive partial federal financial support.

      Public education is free and includes kindergarten and 12 grades of elementary and high school. The system, unique in Canada, is administered by separate English and French sections of the provincial Department of Education and by elected school boards in a number of school districts, some French and some English. Teachers negotiate their salaries with the province, which raises and distributes funds to school districts on the basis of equality so that all areas of the province enjoy similar standards. All universities receive public funding but also rely on student tuitions and private contributions. The University of New Brunswick (established 1785), one of Canada's oldest higher educational institutions, operates from its main campus in Fredericton, which it shares with the Roman Catholic St. Thomas University; a second campus is in Saint John. The University of Moncton serves the French-speaking population from its campuses in Moncton, Edmundston, and Shippagan (Shippegan). Mount Allison University, once a private denominational college but now both publicly and privately funded, is in Sackville. There are also several trade and technical schools.

Cultural life
      Culture is shaped by the predominance of the two largest linguistic groups, English and French. Ethnicity remains a strong determinant of cultural activity in some areas, as in the annual Irish festival held at Miramichi, the blessing of the Acadian fishing fleet at Caraquet, and Loyalist Days in Saint John. Summer festivals and fall fairs retain the flavour of the past and the traditions of the province's early settlers. Popular tastes in music include Irish, Scottish, and Acadian folk idioms and their North American country music derivatives.

The arts
      The fine arts are distinguished by some outstanding work in painting, choral singing, and creative literature. Saint John artists of the 1930s and '40s, such as Miller Brittain and Jack Humphrey, produced striking social commentaries in their depictions of depression and war, while painters at Mount Allison University led the way in the 1960s in the development of a widely recognized regional group of magic realists. Divergent trends of the 20th century are represented by the works of two Fredericton artists: Molly Lamb Bobak, who painted crowd scenes and floral watercolours, and her husband, Bruno Bobak, who painted vibrant landscapes. Acadian choirs from the province, particularly the Moncton area, have won both national and international attention. Regional and provincial music festivals encourage music performance among youth, and internationally known musicians perform at summer chamber music festivals in Lamèque and Fredericton. Fredericton also claims to be the poets' corner of Canada: it is the home of the literary magazine The Fiddlehead, whose founder, the prolific poet Fred Cogswell, and others carried on a tradition first established in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Bliss Carman (Carman, Bliss) and Sir Charles G.D. Roberts (Roberts, Sir Charles G.D.), arguably the founders of Canada's first school of poetry. Founded in 2000, the Northrop Frye bilingual literary festival in Moncton has attracted international participation. Antonine Maillet, an Acadian novelist and playwright from Bouctouche, achieved international recognition for her writing in French, which strikingly reveals the 17th-century idiom and structure of the language as spoken by today's Acadians.

Cultural institutions
      Several institutions provide leadership in the arts. Theatre New Brunswick and the University of Moncton promote drama. The Beaverbrook Art Gallery in Fredericton houses an excellent small collection of British, Canadian, and other paintings of the past three centuries. Notable works include The Fountain of Indolence by J.M.W. Turner (Turner, J.M.W.), Santiago el Grande by Salvador Dalí (Dalí, Salvador), and a significant collection of paintings by Canadian artist Cornelius Krieghoff. Several towns have public and private galleries featuring mostly regional work. The New Brunswick Museum in Saint John, the oldest in Canada, contains archival treasures from the province's past, while two historic reconstructions—King's Landing Historical Settlement near Fredericton and Acadian Village near Caraquet—depict rural life of the past century. Such historic sites as Fort Beauséjour National Historic Park near Sackville remind visitors of the Indian, French, and British roots of the province. A provincial agency fosters cultural activity and has been especially successful in developing and promoting fine crafts. Craft fairs featuring excellent work in wood, pottery, and other media are very popular in summer and fall. Scholars rely on university libraries, the archives of the New Brunswick Museum, the Provincial Archives in Fredericton, and the Centre for Acadian Studies at the University of Moncton. Municipal libraries are widespread.

Sports and recreation
 Recreational activities fall into two groups, winter and summer. Skiing, hockey, and curling dominate in winter. Summer recreation focuses naturally on water: boating, swimming, and fishing flourish in a province that abounds with lakes, rivers, and accessible seashore, including miles of clean sandy beaches along the east coast. Several rivers are famous for their Atlantic salmon, while trout, bass, and pickerel also attract sport fishing. Whale watching near the western islands of the Bay of Fundy is popular as well. Other common outdoor pursuits include golf, tennis, and hunting; a regulated hunting season occurs in the fall of the year. Two national parks— Fundy National Park on the rugged coast of the Bay of Fundy (featuring the world's highest tides) and Kouchibouguac National Park on the Northumberland Strait—and several provincial parks provide camping, bird watching, and hiking. Well-maintained walking and bicycling trails have replaced rail beds in many parts of the province.

Media and publishing
      Several major daily newspapers circulate in the province. Among the leading English-language dailies are the Telegraph-Journal (Saint John), the Daily Gleaner (Fredericton), and the Times and Transcript (Moncton). The main French-language daily is L'Acadie Nouvelle (Caraquet). Television broadcasting derives mainly from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), CTV Television Network, Global Television Network, and Radio-Québec. Cable and satellite television also are available. French- and English-language radio stations broadcast throughout the province.

  The French were the first Europeans to lay claim to the province, part of a larger region that they called Acadia (French: Acadie), which was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Indians (First Nations) of the Micmac (Mi'kmaq), Malecite, and Passamaquoddy nations. The British took over Acadia in 1713, although the French claimed and defended the area that is now New Brunswick until they were defeated militarily in the 1750s. The British expelled or dispersed most of the French-speaking Acadian settlers in 1755 (many of whom eventually returned) and governed the area as Nova Scotia until 1784, when New Brunswick was established as a separate province with its present boundaries.

      The first English-speaking settlers, from New England, moved into the St. John River valley and founded the town of Maugerville in 1762. But it was the influx of some 14,000 loyalist refugees from the American Revolution, mostly from New York and its vicinity, that created the pressure for separate provincehood. The loyalist city of Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city in 1785, and smaller settlements were established in the St. John and St. Croix valleys.

      After early problems of adjustment the loyalist communities of New Brunswick began to prosper. Underlying the improved economy was the British decision in 1808 to grant preferential tariffs to the timber resources of its North American colonies, a move made when Napoleon I's blockade cut off the Baltic supply of shipbuilding materials to the British. For New Brunswick, with its limited agricultural lands but widespread forests, this historical incident provided an opportunity that helped usher in the so-called age of wood, wind, and water, an era of prosperity based on timber exports and shipbuilding. The Reciprocity Treaty with the United States in 1854 and the demand created by the American Civil War further stimulated trade.

      Politically, the province moved slowly toward a more democratic system. Government in the first generation was dominated by a loyalist elite supported by British imperial authority. Responsible home government (government in which the executive branch is drawn from, and answerable to, an elected legislative branch) was granted by Britain in 1848. Political parties, organized largely along ethnic and religious lines and prompted by the prohibition issue, emerged in the 1850s. With its economic success and political independence, New Brunswick entered confederation with Canada in 1867 somewhat reluctantly.

      Confederation, however, coincided with the collapse of the age of wooden ships, and New Brunswickers found themselves scrambling over the next 100 years to rebuild their economy on a new foundation. Railroads and national tariffs helped in the development of manufacturing, such as that of cotton textiles, but the province suffered from the pull of the urban growth areas of Quebec and Ontario. By the 20th century, New Brunswick required federally subsidized freight rates, and it argued, along with other Maritime Provinces, for federal financial assistance, which, after the mid-1900s, it obtained.

      Meanwhile, a modern party system emerged in which, until the 1970s, the old elements of ethnicity and religion continued to be significant. Liberals (Liberal Party of Canada) and Progressive Conservatives (Progressive Conservative Party of Canada) alternated in government at fairly regular intervals. In the mid-20th century, both parties sought economic development based on new electrical power facilities. In the 1960s a Liberal equal opportunity program revolutionized the delivery of health, justice, education, and social services by abolishing counties as administrative units and by centralizing funding and administration at the provincial level. Unique in Canada, the system met strong early resistance, but it continued under the subsequent Conservative government and won acceptance, especially in less-prosperous rural and northern areas, as a means of equalizing services in all parts of the province. Since the late 1980s, both Liberal and Conservative governments have emphasized fiscal restraint, balanced budgets, the restructuring of public services, and a reduction in dependence on federal financial support. In the 1990s and early 21st century, governments continued to pursue economic self-sufficiency.

      New Brunswickers think of their province, with its two languages and cultures, as a microcosm of Canada. Moreover, the province's small size tends to promote support for Canadian federalism among members of both linguistic groups. Even at the beginning of the 21st century, the province retained qualities of its rural and small-town past.

Stephen E. Patterson

Additional Reading
Information on the resources and the economy of New Brunswick is found in government reports, such as New Brunswick, Office of the Economic Advisor, The New Brunswick Economy (irregular). Early history is examined by Bona Arsenault, History of the Acadians (1966, reprinted 1988; originally published in French, 1965); and L.F.S. Upton, Micmacs and Colonists: Indian-White Relations in the Maritimes, 1713–1867 (1979). Later history is explored in James Hannay, History of New Brunswick, 2 vol. (1909); W.S. MacNutt, New Brunswick, a History: 1784–1867 (1963, reprinted 1984); Ann Gorman Condon, The Loyalist Dream for New Brunswick: The Envy of the American States (1984); Graeme Wynn, Timber Colony: A Historical Geography of Early Nineteenth-Century New Brunswick (1981); Philip A. Buckner and John G. Reid (eds.), The Atlantic Region to Confederation: A History (1994); Ernest R. Forbes, Challenging the Regional Stereotypes: Essays on the 20th-Century Maritimes (1989); and Ernest R. Forbes and D.A. Muise (eds.), The Atlantic Provinces in Confederation (1993). The regional journal Acadiensis (semiannual) provides recent scholarship on the province's history.Stephen E. Patterson

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Universalium. 2010.

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