# module

module
/moj"oohl/, n.
1. a separable component, frequently one that is interchangeable with others, for assembly into units of differing size, complexity, or function.
2. any of the individual, self-contained segments of a spacecraft, designed to perform a particular task: the spacecraft's command module; a lunar module.
3. a standard or unit for measuring.
4. a selected unit of measure, ranging in size from a few inches to several feet, used as a basis for the planning and standardization of building materials.
5. Math. an Abelian group with a set of left or right operators forming a ring such that for any two operators and any group element the result of having the first operator act on the element, giving a second element, and the second operator act on the second element is equal to the result of having a single operator, formed by adding or multiplying the two operators, act on the first element. Cf. ring1 (def. 23).
6. Computers.
a. part of a program that performs a distinct function.
b. an interchangeable, plug-in hardware unit.
[1555-65; < L modulus; see MODULUS]

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In architecture, a unit adopted to regulate the dimensions, proportions, or construction of the parts of a building.

Modules based on the diameter of a column were used in Classical architecture. In Japanese architecture, room sizes were determined by combinations of standard rice mats called tatami. Both Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier used modular proportioning systems. Standardized modular design reduces waste, lowers costs, and offers ease of erection, flexible arrangement, and variety of use; however, most architects and producers of building materials continue to use modules based on their own special needs and interests.

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in architecture, an arbitrary unit adopted to regulate the dimensions, proportions, or construction of the parts of a building. A number of modules, based on the diameter of a column, were used in determining the proportions of the order in Classical architecture. In Japanese architecture, room sizes were determined by combinations of rice mats called tatami (q.v.), which were three feet by six feet (a little less than one metre by two metres). In modern architecture, design modules may be used to organize the proportioning and dimensioning of plans. The metre has proved useful for this purpose; Frank Lloyd Wright used a 4-foot (1.3-metre) rectilinear or diagonal grid; and Le Corbusier developed and widely published an additive proportioning system named by him the Modulor.

Modules can also serve as the basis for coordinating the dimensions of the various materials and pieces of equipment to be assembled in the course of constructing a building. The purpose is to assure that all of the elements will go together without wasteful cutting and fitting at the building site and to lower costs by permitting quantity production and distribution of modular products with the assurance that they can be incorporated into any building plan. Concrete, either precast or prestressed, is frequently used to produce modules that can be assembled in a variety of designs; they may include plumbing, channeling, electric wiring, heating units, and other equipment. Modular construction has been widely favoured for low-cost housing, school construction, and other purposes.

An increasing amount of attention was devoted to modules after the development in the 1930s of the Bemis 4-inch (10-centimetre in Europe) cubical module. In the 1950s an effort was made to combine into a single “number pattern” several of these modular systems to offer the designer a larger range of approved dimensions. Most architects and producers of building materials continued, however, to use modules based on their own special needs and interests.

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Universalium. 2010.

### Look at other dictionaries:

• module — [ mɔdyl ] n. m. • 1547; lat. modulus, de modus « mesure » 1 ♦ Archit. Unité de mesure adoptée pour déterminer les proportions des membres d architecture. Le module des architectes grecs était le demi diamètre du fût de colonne à sa base. Par ext …   Encyclopédie Universelle

• module — [mäj′o͞ol΄] n. [Fr module < L modulus, dim. of modus: see MODE] 1. a standard or unit of measurement; specif., a) in classical architecture, the diameter, or one half the diameter, of a column at the base of the shaft, used to determine the… …   English World dictionary

• module — mod‧ule [ˈmɒdjuːl ǁ ˈmɑːdʒuːl] noun [countable] 1. one of several separate parts that can be combined to form a larger thing: • Software is often written in modules by teams of programmers. 2. one of the units that a course of study has been… …   Financial and business terms

• Module — Mod ule, v. t. [See {module}, n., {Modulate}.] To model; also, to modulate. [Obs.] Sandys. Drayton. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• module — index entity Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 module …   Law dictionary

• modulé — modulé, ée (mo du lé, lée) part. passé de moduler. Un chant modulé …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

• module — (n.) 1580s, allotted measure, from M.Fr. module (1540s) or directly from L. modulus small measure, dim. of modus measure, manner (see MODE (Cf. mode) (n.1)). Meaning interchangeable part first recorded 1955; that of separate section of a… …   Etymology dictionary

• Module — Mod ule, n. [F., fr. L. modulus a small measure, dim. of modus. See {Mode}, and cf. {Model}, {Modulus}, {Mold} a matrix.] 1. A model or measure. [1913 Webster] 2. (Arch.) The size of some one part, as the diameter of semi diameter of the base of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• module — Module. s. m. Terme d Architecture. Certaine mesure qu on prend pour regler les proportions d un ordre d Architecture. C est ordinairement le demi diametre de la colomne …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

• module — ► NOUN 1) each of a set of parts or units that can be used to construct a more complex structure. 2) each of a set of independent units of study or training forming part of a course. 3) an independent self contained unit of a spacecraft. ORIGIN… …   English terms dictionary

• Module — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sur les autres projets Wikimedia : « module », sur le Wiktionnaire (dictionnaire universel) Sommaire …   Wikipédia en Français