/muy"steuhr sing'euhr, -zing'-/, n., pl. Meistersinger, Meistersingers for 1.
1. Also, mastersinger. a member of one of the guilds, chiefly of workingmen, established during the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries in the principal cities of Germany, for the cultivation of poetry and music.
2. (italics)Die /dee/, an opera (1867) by Richard Wagner.
[1835-45; < G: master singer]

* * *

(German; "master singer")

Any of certain German musicians and poets, chiefly of the artisan and trading classes, in the 14th to 16th centuries.

These amateur guilds spread throughout Germany until most towns had one. Their main activity was monthly singing contests. Because of their educational aims of fostering morality and religious belief, they came to be instrumental in promulgating the Protestant message during the Reformation, though their music is not regarded as highly distinguished. The most famous meistersinger, Hans Sachs (1494–1576), devoted his art exclusively to the Lutheran cause after 1530.

* * *

      any of certain German musicians and poets, chiefly of the artisan and trading classes, in the 14th to the 16th century. They claimed to be heirs of 12 old masters, accomplished poets skilled in the medieval artes and in musical theory; the minnesinger Heinrich von Meissen, called Frauenlob, was said to be their founder. In a sense, then, they represent the bourgeois inheritance of the courtly minnesinger. Their true predecessors, however, likely were fraternities of laymen, trained to sing in church and elsewhere. Later, when music and poetry became “crafts” to be taught, these fraternities became Singschulen (“song schools”), organized like craft guilds. Their main activity became the holding—still in church—of singing competitions. Composition was restricted to fitting new words to tunes ascribed to the old masters; subject matter, metre, language, and performance were governed by an increasingly strict code of rules (Tabulatur). These deadening restrictions led Hans Folz, a barber-surgeon from Worms (d. c. 1515), to persuade the Nürnberg Singschule to permit a wider range of subjects and the composition of new tunes. These reforms, adopted elsewhere, restored some life to the Singschulen; henceforth, a member, having passed through the grades of Schüler, Schulfreund, Singer, and Dichter, became a “master” by having a tune of his own approved by the Merkern, or adjudicators. In this freer atmosphere, Hans Sachs (Sachs, Hans) flourished—though some regard the 16th century as a period of decline rather than of florescence.

      Nevertheless, music, form, and subject matter remained remarkably constant through the centuries. The music, derived from Gregorian chant, folksong, and other sources, determined the metre (Ton meant both metre and melody). Each stanza, or Gesätz, consisted of two musically identical Stollen (together forming an Aufgesang) and an Abgesang, with its separate metrical scheme—a form derived from the Minnesang and sometimes termed form (Bar form) (q.v.). Verses were based on syllable counting regardless of stress or quantity; rhyme schemes were often elaborate. Three stanzas or a multiple of three constituted a song, or Bar (the musical Bar form provided music for one stanza). For large subjects, several Töne were used. Songs were unaccompanied solos. For the Singschulen in church, a wide range of religious subjects was versified; after the Reformation the text of Luther's Bible was rigidly adhered to. From the 15th century, secular subjects also were used. At the Zechsingen, held afterward at a tavern (perhaps not an official part of the Singschule), subjects were humorous, sometimes obscene.

      From the earliest centres, Mainz, Worms, and Strassburg, the movement spread all over southern Germany and to Silesia and Bohemia; northern Germany had individual meistersingers but no Singschulen. The best documented centre is Nürnberg. The meistersingers were not popular figures, as Richard Wagner's opera Die Meistersinger (1868) suggests; they were largely ignored by professional men, humanists, and the general populace, and their songs were not published. They produced few outstanding songs or artists. Their importance lies rather in their devotion to their art in a troubled age and in their constant efforts to inculcate religious and moral principles. After the year 1600, attempts—mostly unsuccessful—at modernization were made; but the Singschulen slowly declined and disappeared, although the last one, at Memmingen, was not disbanded until 1875.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • MeisterSinger — Rechtsform GmbH Gründung 2001 Sitz Münste …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Meistersinger — ● Meistersinger nom masculin pluriel (allemand Meistersinger) Du XIVe au XVIe s., poètes musiciens allemands organisés en groupements corporatifs. (Le plus illustre d entre eux fut le cordonnier Hans Sachs [1494 1576], dont la corporation a… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • meistersinger — 1845, from Ger. Meistersinger, lit. master singer; see MASTER (Cf. master) (adj.) + SINGER (Cf. singer) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Meistersinger — [mīs′tər siŋ΄ər, mīs′tərziŋ΄ər] n. pl. Meistersinger [Ger, lit., master singer] a member of any of several guilds, mainly of workingmen, organized in German cities in the 14th 16th cent. for cultivating music and poetry …   English World dictionary

  • Meistersinger — Meis ter*sing er, n. [G.] See {Mastersinger}. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Meistersinger — (Meistersänger), s. Meistergesang …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Meistersinger — Meistersinger, die deutschen bürgerlichen Dichter, die seit Anfang des 14. Jahrh. im Anschluß an die Minnesänger die lyrische Kunstdichtung in zunftmäßig abgeschlossenen Vereinen mit Beobachtung fester Regeln (der Tabulatur) handwerksmäßig… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Meistersinger — (izg. màjsterzinger) m DEFINICIJA glazb. pov. pjesnik i pjevač, član bratovštine koja se u Njemačkoj u 15. st. nastavlja na tradiciju Minnesängera; uglavnom pripada građanskom sloju, pretežno obrtničkom ETIMOLOGIJA njem …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Meistersinger — For the opera/music drama by Richard Wagner see Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (1868). Hans Sachs, leader of a famous 16th century Meistersinger school in Nuremberg A Meistersinger (German for “master singer”) was a member of a German guild for… …   Wikipedia

  • Meistersinger — Die Meistersinger (auch Meistersänger) waren bürgerliche Dichter und Sänger im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert, die sich zunftartig zusammenschlossen. Ihre Dichtungen und Melodien leiteten sich aus dem Minnesang ab, gehorchten aber strengen Regeln. Unter …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Meistersinger — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Maître chanteur. Un Meistersinger (allemand pour « maître chanteur ») était un poète lyrique allemand des XIVe, XVe et XVIe siècles, qui a perpétué et développé les traditions du Minnesang médiéval …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”