Long Beach

Long Beach
1. a city in SW California, S of Los Angeles: a seaside resort. 361,334.
2. a city on SW Long Island, in SE New York. 34,073.
3. (ital.) Mil. the U.S. Navy's first nuclear-powered surface ship, a guided-missile cruiser launched in 1959.

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City (pop., 2000: 461,522), southwestern California, U.S. Originally an Indian trading camp, the site was part of Spanish ranches in the 18th century.

Laid out as Willmore City in 1881 and incorporated in 1888, it was renamed for its 8.5-mi (13.5-km) beach. The discovery of oil nearby in 1921 led to rapid growth. An earthquake in 1933 caused extensive damage. Connected to the Los Angeles harbour by the Cerritos Channel, it is the site of a U.S. naval station and shipyard. The British ocean liner Queen Mary has been moored in the harbour since 1969.

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 city, port, Los Angeles county, California, U.S. Long Beach lies on San Pedro Bay, 22 miles (35 km) south of Los Angeles, and surrounds the independent city of Signal Hill. The area was originally an Indian trading camp. In 1542 Spanish explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (Cabrillo, Juan Rodríguez) anchored off the coast. The site became part of Rancho Nietos (1784), a Spanish land grant later divided; the portions later known as Los Alamitos and Los Cerritos made up most of what is now Long Beach. Laid out in 1880 by W.E. Willmore as Willmore City, the town was first settled in 1882. It was soon promoted as a seaside resort and was renamed (1888) for its 8.5-mile (13.5-km) beach.

      Industrial and harbour development was stimulated by the discovery of oil (petroleum) in 1921 at Signal Hill, and Long Beach expanded with the post-World War II growth of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It possesses tideland oil rights, and offshore city derricks are concealed as skyscrapers on landscaped islands. Land subsidence caused by the draining of oil pools has been contained by injections of seawater. In 1933 a severe earthquake caused widespread damage.

      Connected to the Los Angeles harbour by Los Cerritos Channel, Long Beach possesses extensive docking and storage facilities; its port is one of the world's busiest. The city's economy is dominated by manufacturing and services; diversified industries include the production of aircraft and ships, as well as oil refining, food processing, and marine research. It is the seat of Long Beach City (community) College (1927) and California State University, Long Beach (1949). In 1967 the city purchased the historic British transatlantic liner Queen Mary, which is moored in the harbour and functions as a maritime museum, meeting centre, and hotel; it adjoins the Long Beach Convention and Entertainment Center, one of the largest halls in the region. From 1983 to 1992 the legendary Spruce Goose airplane, built by Howard Hughes (Hughes, Howard), was on display in the city; the plane subsequently was moved to Portland, Oregon, and the cavernous dome that housed it was converted into a movie studio. The Aquarium of the Pacific, with more than 12,000 marine animals, is a popular attraction, as is the city's annual automobile race. The Long Beach Museum of Art (founded 1957) incorporates an oceanfront mansion built in 1912. Inc. town, 1888; city, 1897. Pop. (2000) city, 461,522; Los Angeles–Long Beach–Glendale MD, 9,519,338; Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana MSA, 12,365,627; (2006 est.) city, 472,494; Los Angeles–Long Beach–Glendale MD, 9,948,081; Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana MSA, 12,950,129.

▪ island and township, New Jersey, United States
      island and township in Ocean county, eastern New Jersey, U.S. It lies in the Atlantic Ocean 4–6 miles (6–10 km) offshore and shelters Little Egg Harbor and the southern portion of Barnegat Bay (both part of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Intracoastal Waterway)) from the ocean.

      Extending 12 miles (19 km) southward from historic Barnegat Lighthouse (rebuilt in 1858; 165 feet [50 metres] high and near the scene of more than 200 shipwrecks in sailing-ship days), the narrow island includes a string of resorts, notably Loveladies (where there is a Foundation of Arts and Sciences), Harvey Cedars (Long Beach's oldest community; settled just after the War of 1812 and subsequently inhabited by whalers), Surf City, Ship Bottom (bridged to the mainland), Brant Beach, and Beach Haven (near the southern tip), which is known for its Surflight Summer Theatre. Long Beach was incorporated as a township in 1899. The island is a popular place for summer cottages and art colonies and has facilities for bathing, surfing, fishing, and boating. Pop. (1990) 3,407; (2000) 3,329.

      first nuclear-powered surface warship, launched by the U.S. Navy in 1959. Displacing 14,000 tons, the Long Beach was classed as a cruiser but had a substantially larger below-deck space than conventionally powered ships of the same tonnage because of the compactness of its nuclear plant. It carried guided-missile armament and antisubmarine weapons and devices and was capable of remaining at sea for as much as six months at a time.

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Universalium. 2010.

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