/yoong"keuhr/, n.1. a member of a class of aristocratic landholders, esp. in East Prussia, strongly devoted to militarism and authoritarianism, from among whom the German military forces recruited a large number of its officers.2. a young German, esp. Prussian, nobleman.3. a German official or military officer who is narrow-minded, haughty, and overbearing.[1545-55; < G; OHG juncherro, equiv. to junc YOUNG + herro HERR]
* * *▪ Prussian and German landowner(German: “country squire”), member of the landowning aristocracy of Prussia and eastern Germany, which, under the German Empire (1871–1918) and the Weimar Republic (1919–33), exercised substantial political power. Otto von Bismarck (Bismarck, Otto von) himself, the imperial chancellor during 1871–90, was of Junker stock and at first was regarded as representing its interests. Politically, Junkers stood for extreme conservatism, support of the monarchy and military tradition, and protectionist policies for agriculture. The German Conservative Party in the Reichstag, or Imperial Assembly, and the extraparliamentary Agrarian League (q.v.) represented Junker interests throughout the imperial era. Because the Junkers staffed the Prussian (Prussia) army, which had brought about Germany's unification, they were accorded great influence, particularly in Prussia, where a highly illiberal constitution remained in force (1850–1918). During the Weimar period, Junkers were continuously hostile to the republic, the collapse of which contributed to the rise of Adolf Hitler.
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