/joh han"is berrg', -hah"nis-/; Du. /yoh hahn"euhs buerddkh'/, n.
a city in S Transvaal, in the NE Republic of South Africa. 1,441,000.

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City (pop., 1996: metro. area, 1,480,530), northeastern South Africa.

One of the country's largest cities, it lies on the southern slopes of the highland region called the Witwatersrand. It was founded in 1886 after the discovery of gold nearby and was occupied by the British during the South African War in 1900. It was a legally segregated city until 1991; nonwhites were restricted to living in outlying areas called townships, including Soweto. Greater Johannesburg extends over more than 200 sq mi (500 sq km) and includes more than 500 suburbs and townships. It is a leading industrial and financial centre. Its cultural and educational institutions include the Johannesburg Art Gallery, the Civic Theatre, the University of Witwatersrand, and Rand Afrikaans University.

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 city, Gauteng province, South Africa. It is the country's chief industrial and financial metropolis.

      One of the youngest of the world's major cities, Johannesburg was founded in 1886, following the discovery of gold. The city was initially part of the Transvaal, an independent Afrikaner, or Boer, republic that later became one of the four provinces of South Africa. Today the city is a part of Gauteng (a Sotho word meaning “Place of Gold”), one of the nine provinces of South Africa.

      The geography of Johannesburg reflects nearly a century of racially driven social engineering that reached a climax under apartheid (literally “apartness”), the system of racial segregation that obtained in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. The result is a city of extraordinary contrasts, of glass and steel skyscrapers and fetid shantytowns, of internationally recognized universities and widespread illiteracy, of glittering abundance and desperate poverty. Pop. (2005 est.) urban agglom., 3,288,000.

Physical and human geography

The landscape
The city site
      Johannesburg is situated on the Highveld, the broad, grassy plateau that sweeps across the South African interior. The city bestrides the Witwatersrand, or Rand, a string of low, rocky ridges that constitutes the watershed between the drainages into the Indian and Atlantic oceans. The city's elevation ranges from 5,700 to 5,930 feet (1,740 to 1,810 metres).

      Aside from a few small streams and artificial lakes, Johannesburg lacks water; indeed, it has the distinction of being the world's largest city not on a navigable body of water. The city owes its location to the presence of an even more precious resource: gold. The city grew on the edge of the Witwatersrand Main Reef, a subterranean stratum of gold-bearing quartz-silica conglomerate that arcs for hundreds of miles beneath the Highveld. Most of the gold mines in the city ceased operation in the 1970s, but in its day the Witwatersrand gold industry accounted for more than 40 percent of the world's annual gold production. Remnants of the industry—rusting headgear, towering yellow-white mine dumps, copses of dusty Australian bluegum trees imported for underground timbering—still litter the landscape.

      Johannesburg has a temperate climate. Summertime temperatures average about 75° F (24° C); winter temperatures average about 55° F (13° C) and only occasionally dip below freezing. The city enjoys about eight hours of sunlight per day in both winter and summer. Rainfall averages about 28 inches (700 millimetres) per annum, but the total varies considerably from year to year. Droughts are common. What rain the city receives falls almost exclusively in the summer months, often in spectacular late-afternoon electrical storms. Air pollution poses a significant problem, especially in the winter months, when thermal inversions impede the westward flow of air from the Indian Ocean. Pollution is most severe in the densely settled black townships on the city's periphery, where many residents still rely on coal for fuel.

The city layout
      Central Johannesburg, the commercial and financial heart of South Africa, is laid out in a rectangular grid pattern that is unchanged from the first city survey in 1886. Streets are narrow and cast into shadow by high-rise concrete blocks, creating an almost tunnellike effect. Architecturally, the city is a hodgepodge, reflecting decades of rapid growth and a singular indifference to historic preservation. The tents and clay huts of the original mining camp are gone, as are most of the ornate, gabled Victorian edifices that sprang up in the 1890s. (Markhams Building, on Pritchard Street, is a conspicuous exception.) The early 20th century brought a variety of architectural styles and movements. Monumental Beaux Arts structures such as the Supreme Court building and the Johannesburg Art Gallery bespoke the city's new status as an outpost of the British Empire, while massive, steel-reinforced concrete blocks such as Corner House, headquarters of one of South Africa's leading mining houses, reflected the growing importance of American architectural techniques and idioms. American influence was even more apparent in the 1930s “skyscraper” movement, most notably in the 1937 ESKOM Building, a 21-story Art Deco tower built to evoke the vigour of New York City. (The ESKOM Building was torn down in 1983, joining a distinguished line of vanished landmarks.) Whatever architectural distinction the city had was lost in the decades after World War II amidst a sea of nondescript high-rise blocks.

      Greater Johannesburg, an area of more than 200 square miles, comprises more than 500 suburbs and townships. Under the terms of the 1950 Group Areas Act, the cornerstone of urban apartheid (see below), each was reserved for a single “race group.” The act was repealed in 1991, but Johannesburg retains a high degree of racial segregation.

      Black Africans can be found throughout the city, but the majority still live in “townships” on the urban periphery, essentially dormitory cities for blacks working in the city. Alexandra township, a 20-square-block enclave carved out of Johannesburg's white northern suburbs, houses a population of nearly half a million. At least three times that number live in Soweto (South-West Townships), a sprawling urban complex 10 miles southwest of the city. Johannesburg's small Coloured population (people of mixed race) clusters in townships west of the city, while the bulk of its Indian population (ethnic Asians: Indians, Malays, Filipinos, and Chinese) lives in Lenasia, a special “Asiatic” township built in the 1950s to accommodate Indians forcibly removed from the city centre. The balance of the city is occupied by whites.

      Accommodation varies in character and quality. Soweto is notorious for its endless rows of municipally built, two-room matchbox homes, yet it also has a few prosperous enclaves as well as teeming squatter camps, where tens of thousands live without water, electricity, or sanitation facilities. Black migrant workers, long the backbone of South Africa's industrial labour force, are lodged in massive, single-sex hostels located close to the workplace or on the edge of black townships. White accommodation varies from suburb to suburb. In western suburbs such as Brixton and Melville, middle-class whites live in the modest tin-roofed bungalows and semidetached homes that once housed the city's white working class. Conditions are bleaker in neighbouring suburbs such as Cottesloe, Vrededorp, and Booysens Reserve, home to most of Johannesburg's white poor. More affluent whites live in the north, in leafy, established communities such as Houghton and Parktown, once the residence of South Africa's mining magnates, or in any of a dozen newer suburbs. Northern suburban homes typically include large, flowering gardens and swimming pools. Most are surrounded by high fences.

The people
      About three-fourths of Johannesburg's citizens are black, less than one-fifth are white, and most of the remainder are Coloured or Asian/Indian. Such figures, however, scarcely do justice to the city's polyglot population. At least a dozen different languages are in widespread daily use in Johannesburg. The majority of the white population is of English and Afrikaans descent, but the city also includes substantial Portuguese, Greek, Italian, Russian, Polish, and Lebanese communities. The black population includes representatives from every ethnic and linguistic group in southern Africa. All the world's major religions are represented, though the majority of the people, both white and black, are Christian. The most significant churches, in terms of numbers, are the “Zionist” churches—small, independent African sects that blend Pentecostal Christianity and indigenous ritual belief. Zionists, adorned in colourful robes, hold outdoor services all across the city on Sundays.

The economy
Commerce and industry
      Johannesburg is a centre of mining, manufacturing, and finance. All the mining houses are headquartered in the city, as is the Chamber of Mines, which regulates the industry. Local factories in Johannesburg and on the East Rand produce a great variety of goods ranging from textiles to specialty steels. A substantial engineering sector serves the needs of the mining industry. Virtually all the country's banks, insurance companies, and building societies have their head offices in the city. The Johannesburg Stock Exchange, founded in 1887 to raise capital for deep-level mining, lists more than 600 companies.

      While Pretoria, the South African capital, is only 40 miles to the north, most state ministries have offices in Johannesburg. Many foreign countries retain consular facilities, largely to service the needs of overseas firms, hundreds of which operate in the city.

      Johannesburg is a hub for local, national, and international travel. Railroads and multilane freeways crisscross the metropolitan area, carrying hundreds of thousands of daily commuters to and from outlying suburbs and townships. A municipal bus system operates within the city, and a separate, private bus company operating under a state monopoly connects the city centre with Soweto and Alexandra. The inadequacies of the latter have fostered a burgeoning local taxi industry. O.R. Tambo International Airport, 14 miles northeast of the city centre, offers regularly scheduled service between Johannesburg and most cities in southern Africa, as well as direct flights to Europe, North and South America, Australia, and Asia.

Administration and social conditions
      South Africa possesses a federal system of government, with authority divided between national, provincial, and local levels of government. Local authority for Johannesburg rests with the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, which includes representatives from all across the metropolitan area. In extending the municipal borders to include previously disfranchised black townships such as Soweto and Alexandra, political leaders hope to facilitate some equalization of revenues and services between white and black areas.

Public services
      Local bus service, fire fighting, and sanitation remain the province of the municipality, but other responsibilities—such as the provision of housing in black townships—have been assumed by the Gauteng regional legislature. Electricity is provided through the Electricity Supply Commission (ESKOM), a national parastatal institution. Water is supplied by the Rand Water Board. Municipal police oversee traffic control; other policing is provided by the South African Police Services. The South African Broadcasting Corporation is headquartered in Auckland Park, west of the city centre.

      Apartheid left perhaps its deepest imprint on public health. In black townships rates of child mortality are significantly higher and life spans far shorter than in white neighbourhoods. Tuberculosis, virtually eradicated among whites, remains endemic in townships and migrant hostels. Addressing such historical inequities is one of the chief challenges of the national government.

      Johannesburg has numerous hospitals and clinics, designated under apartheid for use by specified race groups but now legally open to all. The best-equipped of these is Johannesburg General, a 2,000-bed formerly “white” hospital that opened on Parktown Ridge in 1978. The largest hospital in Johannesburg, and indeed in all Africa, is Baragwanath, a sprawling complex on the northern edge of Soweto; it serves more than 5,000 patients per day, placing a severe burden on limited facilities. With the end of segregation, an increasing number of whites have resorted to expensive “private clinics,” where they receive treatment equivalent to that in a modern American hospital.

      Primary and secondary schools range widely in character. Racial segregation, abolished in law, remains common in practice. Facilities of higher education include the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa's premier university. Founded in 1896 as the South African School of Mines, “Wits” today confers degrees in commerce, arts, sciences, architecture, law, education, medicine, and dentistry. Also there is the University of Johannesburg, formed in 2005 when Rand Afrikaans University, Technikon Witwatersrand, and local campuses of Vista University merged.

Cultural life
      Johannesburg boasts a rich, if strangely schizophrenic, cultural life. Patrons of the arts can take in a performance of the National Symphony Orchestra and then retire to one of the city's thriving jazz clubs to hear internationally acclaimed local performers, many of whom have returned to Johannesburg after long years in exile. The Johannesburg Art Gallery, established in the early years of the 20th century with donations from mining magnates, features Africa's finest collection of European Impressionists, while most of the city's dozen private galleries increasingly highlight the work of African artists. Theatre flourishes. While the 1,100-seat Civic Theatre stages European operas and American musicals, many smaller companies nurture the talents of local actors and playwrights, white and black. A visit to Johannesburg is incomplete without a trip to the world-renowned Market Theatre, a multitheatre complex housed in the city's old produce market.

      The city has many museums and libraries. Johannesburg Public Library, first established in 1889, is the centre of an extensive network of branch libraries. Local museums specialize in geology, Africana, military history, archaeology, transport, banking, costume, and Judaica. Visitors interested in a taste of old Johannesburg can visit Gold Reef City, an amusement park located a few miles south of the city on the site of a defunct gold mine. Those interested in a less sanitized version of the city's past can visit the Museum Africa or the Bensusan Museum of Photography, both at the old market.

      Blessed as they are with a warm, sunny climate, Johannesburgers spend a considerable amount of time outdoors. The northern suburbs feature broad swaths of open space for bird-watching and picnicking. Weekend cookouts—braaivleis, in local parlance—are a summertime ritual, especially among Afrikaners. Like other South Africans, Johannesburg residents tend to be avid sportsmen. In the years since South Africa's return from political isolation, the city has hosted international competitions in rugby, football (soccer), cricket, golf, and tennis.


The early period, 1853–1930
      Johannesburg's early history is the story of gold. In 1853 Pieter Jacob Marais, a South African prospector, recovered alluvial gold from the Jukskei River, north of what would become Johannesburg. The years that followed brought several modest strikes, but the Witwatersrand Main Reef eluded searchers until 1886, when George Harrison, an Australian prospector, chanced upon an outcropping on a farm called Langlaagte. Ironically, Harrison failed to appreciate the significance of his find: he sold his claim for £10 and embarked for the goldfields (gold rush) of the eastern Transvaal region.

      Others were more farsighted. By mid-1886 an army of diggers had descended on the Witwatersrand, hacking away with picks and shovels along a line that soon stretched 40 miles west to east. In response to this influx, the government of the Transvaal, the small Boer republic under whose jurisdiction the Witwatersrand fell, dispatched two men, Vice President Christiaan Johannes Joubert and Deputy Surveyor-General Johann Rissik, to inspect the goldfields and identify a suitable city site. The new city was called Johannesburg, apparently in their honour.

      As the scale of the gold deposits became apparent, Johannesburg became the 19th century's last great boomtown. Fortune hunters from as far afield as Australia and California joined skilled Cornish and Welsh miners, who brought to South Africa a strong trade-union tradition. Destitute Afrikaners, driven from their rural homes by debt and drought, clustered in slums such as Brickfields and Vrededorp. Blacks from every corner of the southern African subcontinent migrated to the city, often in large ethnic cohorts, adding a dozen more voices to the cultural and linguistic babel. Most blacks worked on the mines, completing six- and nine-month contracts before returning to their rural homes. Others settled permanently in the swelling city, carving out niches as rickshaw drivers, domestic workers, and washermen. By 1896 Johannesburg had become a city of 100,000 people.

      Conceived in avarice, the young city nurtured every species of vice. Banks and boardinghouses jostled for space with more than 500 saloons. Criminal syndicates with roots in New York City and London found fertile soil in Johannesburg. The predominantly male population provided a robust market for prostitution. “Ancient Ninevah and Babylon have been revived,” a visiting journalist wrote in 1913. “Johannesburg is their twentieth century prototype. It is a city of unbridled squalor and unfathomable squander.”

Consolidation of the gold industry
      The gold deposits of the Main Reef, for all their uncanny dependability, were also extremely low-grade. Tons of the pebbly conglomerate had to be mined, crushed, amalgamated with mercury (later cyanide), and retorted in order to produce even an ounce or two of gold. This fact, combined with gold's internationally fixed price, produced a perennial problem of profitability, which increased exponentially as the reef dipped away to the south to depths of hundreds, and ultimately thousands, of feet. (South African gold mines would eventually reach depths of over two miles, making them far and away the deepest mines in the world.)

      All these factors promoted a rapid consolidation of the industry. By the mid-1890s control of the entire Witwatersrand gold industry rested in the hands of a half-dozen massive mining houses, each of which commanded thousands of workers and millions of dollars in capital, most of it raised from investors in Europe and the United States. Control of these companies lay with a small number of so-called “Randlords,” men such as Alfred Beit, Barney Barnato, and J.B. Robinson, who had made their fortunes on the Kimberley diamond fields and well understood the exigencies of large-scale industrial mining. Working under the auspices of the newly formed Chamber of Mines, the Randlords strove to establish the profitability of their industry by rationalizing production and relentlessly squeezing down costs, especially the cost of labour.

The national and international context
      As the Randlords' power waxed, so did their frustration with the Transvaal government, which they regarded as too corrupt and inefficient to meet the needs of a modern industrial economy. Boer officials extracted hefty bribes and handed out valuable concessions on supplies to political allies. Worse, the Transvaal government seemed unable to enact or enforce the kind of discriminatory taxes and rigorous master-servant laws that the Randlords regarded as essential to their campaign to reduce black labour costs. As one exasperated industry expert put it, Boers lacked the ability “to understand capitalism, industrialisation and progress.”

      Mineowners' frustrations were stoked by British officials, many of whom were eager to see the goldfields brought within the orbit of the British Empire. (In the political economy of the day, a nation's strength was a direct function of its hard currency reserves, and the reserves of the Bank of England had fallen to ominously low levels.) In 1895, British officials tacitly endorsed the Jameson Raid, a coup attempt against the Transvaal government conceived by the mining magnate Cecil John Rhodes (Rhodes, Cecil). When that failed, they seized on the plight of the “uitlanders”—the foreign, mostly British, miners in Johannesburg, who were denied the right to vote under Transvaal law. In September 1899 the British government delivered an ultimatum to the Boers demanding the immediate enfranchisement of all (white) uitlanders. In October 1899 the South African War (also known as the Boer War) began. When the fighting ceased two and a half years later, the Transvaal and its sister republic, the Orange Free State, were colonies of the British Empire.

      British troops entered Johannesburg unopposed in June 1900. The mines, left undamaged by retreating Boers, were back in operation by the end of 1901. As mineowners had hoped, the Transvaal's new imperial overlords were sensitive to the industry's needs, rescinding Boer tariffs and concessions and enacting onerous new taxes and a pass law explicitly designed to force blacks to accept employment at whatever wages whites were willing to pay. When these devices failed to produce a sufficient pool of cheap labour, imperial officials cooperated with the Chamber of Mines in the temporary importation of more than 60,000 Chinese indentured labourers. By the inauguration of the Union of South Africa in 1910, the gold industry rested on a firm financial footing.

The local level

Racist enactments
      The first decades of the 20th century were a time of extensive social engineering as municipal authorities, influenced by new currents in eugenics and city planning, attacked what they took to be the sources of urban disorder. In 1904, blacks living near the city centre were forcibly relocated to Klipspruit, 10 miles southwest of town. As had happened in earlier removals in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, the move was preceded by a plague scare and accomplished in the name of “sanitation,” though it is difficult to see how the interests of sanitation were served at Klipspruit, a municipal sewerage farm. Similarly strained justifications were used in ensuing decades to relocate not only blacks but Indians, Coloureds, and even poor whites. The process was facilitated by the ideology of segregation, which emerged in the first quarter of the 20th century as a kind of panacea for South Africa's “race problem.” The 1923 Natives (Urban Areas) Act, for example, defined urban blacks as “temporary sojourners,” welcome only insofar as they ministered “to the wants of the white population.” While Johannesburg never availed itself of the full range of powers the law afforded, it took advantage of the act to relocate thousands of blacks from slums and backyards in the city to black townships such as Alexandra or Western Areas or to the new development at Orlando East, the first piece in the vast urban jigsaw that would become Soweto. Pass and liquor raids became regular features of township life, as police strove to root out those who were “idle,” “disorderly,” or simply superfluous to the white economy.

Black protests
      Blacks did not simply accede to racist enactments. They organized innumerable petitions and deputations in the early years of the 20th century, protesting what they regarded as a betrayal of the British tradition of equality before the law. Protest exploded into outright resistance in the last years of World War I. Ground between low wages and murderous wartime inflation, African railway and municipal workers in Johannesburg staged bitter strikes. An emboldened Transvaal Native Congress, the local affiliate of the South African Native National Congress (renamed African National Congress [ANC] in 1923), launched a major antipass campaign, leading to several violent clashes with police. In 1920, 70,000 black mineworkers struck for better wages and working conditions. Eventually the army was called out to march the strikers underground at bayonet point.

Challenge by white workers
      As significant as such resistance was, the chief challenge to South Africa's political order in the early decades of the 20th century came from Johannesburg's white workers. By custom, whites performed all skilled labour in the mines (a practice enshrined in the “job colour bar” provisions of the 1911 Mines and Works Act), commanding in return wages 5 to 10 times higher than those earned by blacks. Mineowners, ever on the lookout for ways to reduce costs, challenged white workers on three separate occasions—in 1907, 1913, and 1922—encountering violent resistance each time. In the last case, a plan to reduce the proportion of whites in the mine labour force touched off a general strike, which quickly escalated into a full-scale armed insurrection. White workers, marching under banners that proclaimed “Workers of the World Fight and Unite for a White South Africa,” seized control of the entire city, surrendering only after the arrival of 20,000 troops and a sustained air and artillery bombardment. More than 200 people died in the “Rand Revolt,” including 30 blacks murdered by strikers.

The transformations of the 1930s and '40s
      In the 1930s and '40s Johannesburg was transformed by a massive in-migration of blacks from the countryside. Primarily a consequence of deteriorating conditions in rural reserves, black urbanization also reflected the increasing availability of employment in the Witwatersrand's rapidly growing secondary industries. Born of the exigencies of war and sustained through the 1920s by government tariffs, South African manufacturing industry exploded in the 1930s, especially in the boom years that followed the country's departure from the gold standard in 1933. By the early 1940s manufacturing had outstripped both mining and agriculture in terms of its contribution to the gross national product. Most of this development was focused in Johannesburg and in old East Rand mining communities such as Benoni, Boksburg, and Germiston, where the number of blacks employed in secondary industry soon exceeded the number working in the mines. Ominously for segregationists, a growing percentage of these workers were not migrants but permanently urbanized proletarians, living with wives and children.

      The conflict between the imperatives of segregation and industrialization came to a head during World War II. With white workers off to the front and booming factories desperate for labour, the government of Prime Minister Jan Smuts (Smuts, Jan) suspended the operation of influx control on the Witwatersrand, unleashing a cataract of urbanization. Johannesburg's black population virtually doubled, to more than 400,000. With housing construction at a standstill, new arrivals were crammed into already overcrowded townships or into informal squatter camps thrown up wherever there was open space. Squalid, overcrowded conditions bred disease and vice, but they also spawned new forms of political consciousness and action, evident in bus boycotts in Alexandra, defiant squatter movements, and the rise of the militant African National Congress Youth League. (Among the founders of the league was a young Johannesburg apprentice attorney named Nelson Mandela.) A new wave of trade unionism spread among workers, culminating in the 1946 black mineworkers' strike.

Enforcing the system
      These transformations were not lost on white political leaders. On the contrary, the future of Johannesburg and other South African cities became the central issue in the 1948 national election. Jan Smuts' United Party, while defending its commitment to white supremacy, argued that complete segregation was chimerical and that some permanent black urbanization was an inevitable consequence of economic development. The National Party of Daniel F. Malan (Malan, Daniel F), in contrast, warned that whites were being “swamped” and called for a forceful restoration of the old order. Malan dubbed his policy “apartheid.” Buoyed by a massive turnout of Afrikaner voters, the Nationalists secured a parliamentary majority, which they retained for the next 46 years. In that time they enacted a panoply of laws that specified where one could live, work, or attend school, all on the basis of race. The squatter camps that had sprung up around Johannesburg in the mid-1940s were bulldozed, as were established settlements that fell within areas now designated as “White.” Sophiatown, home to many of South Africa's most celebrated writers and musicians, was removed starting in 1955. In its place rose a new white working-class suburb, which authorities dubbed Triomf—Afrikaans for “triumph.”

      The 1960s in Johannesburg were, depending on one's point of view, the best of times or the worst of times. With oppositional movements banned, the National Party had a free hand to elaborate its vision of “grand apartheid.” Between 1960 and 1980 close to four million blacks were forcibly relocated, including several hundred thousand from Johannesburg, to remote, desiccated Bantustans (ethnic “homelands”). While careful not to impede the flow of labour to industry, state officials enforced pass laws with unprecedented rigour: in the quarter-century preceding the final repeal of influx control in 1986 the state prosecuted nearly 10 million pass offenses, an average of more than 1,000 per day. For whites, on the other hand, these years brought unimagined prosperity. Over the course of the 1960s the South African economy grew nearly 6 percent per annum, a rate exceeded only by Japan. Needless to say, most of the benefits accrued to whites, who rewarded the National Party with ever greater parliamentary majorities.

Apartheid's demise
      Beneath apartheid's placid surface, however, lay seething discontent—discontent that exploded, inevitably, in Johannesburg. On June 16, 1976, South African police fired on a group of Soweto students who were marching in protest against state plans to impose Afrikaans as a medium of instruction in black schools. The shooting ignited a massive popular uprising that raged for months and eventually spread to more than 80 cities across South Africa. Townships around Johannesburg exploded again in 1984, in response to the National Party's introduction of a new constitution that conceded limited franchise rights to Indians and Coloureds while excluding the black majority. Unrest continued to rage throughout the 1980s, despite the declaration of a state of emergency and the deployment of units of the South African Defence Force. These years also witnessed the revival of black trade union activity, registered in a wave of strikes and stayaways that periodically brought the economy of the Witwatersrand to a halt. This growing militancy, coupled with tightening international economic sanctions, helped propel South Africa's white rulers to the negotiating table, paving the way for the country's first democratic elections in 1994, in which the ANC was victorious.

      Under the new ANC government, the Municipal Structures Act was passed into law in 1998, further integrating and regulating local government in Johannesburg and throughout the country. Crime, chronically a problem in Johannesburg, became particularly acute in the 1990s and early 2000s, as violence drove businesses from the city centre into its safer suburbs.

Additional Reading
Digby Ricci (compiler and ed.), Reef of Time: Johannesburg in Writing (1986), contains a wide-ranging collection of recent and historical writings about the city. An illustrated discussion of the history, institutions, and culture of the city (though from a decidedly white perspective) can be found in Johannesburg: One Hundred Years (1986). A.P. Cartwright, The Corner House: The Early History of Johannesburg (1965), discusses history from the perspective of the great mining houses. Charles Van Onselen, Studies in the Social and Economic History of the Witwatersrand, 1886–1914, 2 vol. (1982), a classic work, charts the social struggles unleashed by the opening of the Witwatersrand goldfields. Ellen Hellmann, Rooiyard: A Sociological Survey of an Urban Native Slum Yard (1948, reissued 1969), vividly describes the squalid, overcrowded conditions that prevailed among blacks in Johannesburg during and after World War II. Can Themba, The Will to Die (1972, reissued 1982), collects writings from black Johannesburg in the 1950s by the era's leading black journalist. Peter Kallaway and Patrick Pearson (eds.), Johannesburg: Images and Continuities: A History of Working Class Life Through Pictures, 1885–1935 (1986), is the finest collection of old Johannesburg photographs. Arnold Benjamin, Lost Johannesburg (1979), pays photographic tribute to Johannesburg's disappearing architectural landmarks. James T. Campbell

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Universalium. 2010.

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