Isabella I

Isabella I
("the Catholic")
1451-1504, wife of Ferdinand V: queen of Castile 1474-1504; joint ruler of Aragon 1479-1504.

* * *

known as Isabella the Catholic Spanish Isabel la Católica

born April 22, 1451, Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Castile
died Nov. 26, 1504, Medina del Campo, Spain

Queen of Castile (1474–1504) and of Aragon (1479–1504).

Daughter of John II of Castile and León, she married Ferdinand V in 1469. Her reign began with civil war over her succession (1474–79), but in 1479 the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon came together in the persons of their rulers, though they remained separately governed. In a long campaign (1482–92), Isabella and Ferdinand succeeded in conquering Granada, the last Muslim stronghold in Spain. In 1492 Isabella approved support of Christopher Columbus's journey to the New World. That same year she was involved in the expulsion of the Jews under the Inquisition. Along with her spiritual advisers, she reformed the Spanish churches.

Isabella I, portrait by an unknown artist; in the Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid, Spain.

Archivo Mas, Barcelona

* * *

▪ queen of Jerusalem
byname  Isabella of Anjou , French  Isabelle d'Anjou 
born 1172
died 1205

      queen of Jerusalem (1192–1205).

      Daughter of Almaric I of Jerusalem and Maria Comnena, she succeeded to the throne of Jerusalem after the death of her sister, Sibyl (Sibylle), in 1190 and the deposition of Sibyl's husband and consort in 1192.

      First married to Humphrey IV, lord of Toron, she was forcibly divorced from her beloved husband in order to be married to Conrad of Montferrat, lord of Tyre, and, after his assassination (1192), to Henry of Troyes (died 1197). Her fourth husband was Almaric II, king of Cyprus.

      Isabella's daughter Mary (Marie) of Montferrat, succeeded her as queen and was married to John of Brienne (1210).

▪ queen of Spain
byname  Isabella the Catholic , Spanish  Isabel la Católica 
born April 22, 1451, Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Castile
died November 26, 1504, Medina del Campo, Spain
 queen of Castile (1474–1504) and of Aragon (1479–1504), ruling the two kingdoms jointly from 1479 with her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile). Their rule effected the permanent union of Spain and the beginning of an overseas empire in the New World, led by Christopher Columbus (Columbus, Christopher) under Isabella's sponsorship.

Early life
      Isabella was the daughter of John II of Castile and his second wife, Isabella of Portugal. Three years after her birth her half brother became king as Henry IV. Despite the fact that she had a younger brother, Alfonso, and that her early years were spent quietly with her mother at Arévalo, Isabella was soon drawn into Castilian politics. She was brought to court when she was 13 in order to be under the king's eye. At first the opposition to Henry IV gathered around Alfonso, but when the latter died in July 1468, the rebellious magnates naturally turned to Isabella. She did not, however, play the role thus designed for her, and the fruit of her wisdom was recognition as his heiress by Henry IV at the agreement known as the Accord of Toros de Guisando (September 19, 1468).

      As heiress of Castile, the question of Isabella's future marriage became a matter of increasing diplomatic activity at home and abroad. Portugal, Aragon, and France each put forward a marriage candidate. Henry seems to have wanted his half sister to marry Afonso V, king of Portugal. As between the Portuguese and Aragonese candidates, she herself, no doubt assisted in her decision by her small group of councillors, came down in favour of Ferdinand of Aragon. A third suitor, the French duc de Guiènne, was sidestepped, and without Henry's approval she married Ferdinand in October 1469 in the palace of Juan de Vivero, at Valladolid. The prospect of an Aragonese consort led to the development of an anti-Aragonese party that put forward the claims of a rival heiress, Henry's daughter Joan, known as la Beltraneja by those who believed that her true father was Beltrán de la Cueva, duque de Albuquerque. The king encouraged this group by going back on the accord of 1468 on the grounds that Isabella had shown disobedience to the crown in marrying Ferdinand without the royal consent. He now rejected Isabella's claim to the throne and preferred that of Joan, for whom he sought the hand of the duc de Guiènne. Although Isabella and Henry were to some extent reconciled, the long-threatened war of succession broke out at once when the king died in 1474.

      When Henry died Isabella was in Segovia, which was secured for her claim. She was supported by an important group of Castilian nobles, including Cardinal Pedro González de Mendoza (González de Mendoza, Pedro, Cardinal), the constable of Castile (a Velasco), and the admiral (an Enríquez), who was related to Ferdinand's mother. The opposing faction, which put forward the counterclaims of Joan, included the archbishop of Toledo; a former supporter, the master of Calatrava (an influential military order); and the powerful young marqués de Villena. They were supported by Afonso V of Portugal, who hastened to invade Castile and there betrothed himself to Joan. The first four years of Isabella's reign were thus occupied by a civil war, which ended in defeat for her Castilian opponents and for the Portuguese king (February 24, 1479). Upon the death of John II of Aragon in the same year, the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon came together in the persons of their rulers.

      Spain emerged as a united country, but it was long before this personal union would lead to effective political unification. Ferdinand, indeed, in his first will (1475) made Isabella his heir in Aragon and openly declared the advantages his subjects would derive from the union with Castile. But each kingdom continued to be governed according to its own institutions. The two sovereigns were certainly united in aiming to end the long process of Reconquista by taking over the kingdom of Granada—the last Muslim stronghold in Spain. In the end, however, the conquest (which began in 1482) proved difficult and drawn out, and it strained the finances of Castile. Although some of the features of the campaign were medieval (such as the order of battle), others were novel. Isabella took a close interest in the conduct of the war and seems to have been responsible for improved methods of supply and for the establishment of a military hospital. In 1491 she and Ferdinand set up a forward headquarters at Santa Fe, close to their ultimate objective, and there they stayed until Granada fell on January 2, 1492.

      While she was at Santa Fe another event with which the queen was to become personally associated was in the making, for Columbus (Columbus, Christopher) visited her there to enlist support for the voyage that was to result in the European settlement of America. Although the story of her offering to pledge her jewels to help finance the expedition cannot be accepted, and Columbus secured only limited financial support from her, Isabella and her councillors must receive credit for making the decision to approve the momentous voyage. The terms on which the expedition was to set out to discover a new route to the Indies were drawn up on April 17, 1492. The New World that was explored as a result of that decision was, with papal confirmation, annexed to the crown of Castile, in accordance with existing practice in regard to such previous Atlantic discoveries as the Canary Islands.

      The queen and her advisers hardly needed Columbus to remind them of the opportunity now offered for the spreading of Christianity. Yet the unexpected discoveries quickly brought fresh problems to Isabella, not the least of which was the relationship between the newly discovered “Indians” and the crown of Castile. The queen and her councillors were more ready to recognize the rights of the Indians than was Columbus; she ordered some of those he had brought back as slaves to be released. The queen was still concerned with these problems when she died in 1504.

 Meanwhile, in 1480 the inquisition had been set up in Andalusia. There is little doubt that this represented the culmination of a long and popular movement against non-Christians and doubtful converts, which had manifested itself frequently in the late Middle Ages in Castile. The expulsion in 1492 of those Jews who refused conversion was the logical result of the establishment of the Inquisition. Yet, however meritorious the expulsion may have seemed at the time in order to achieve greater religious and political unity, judged by its economic consequences alone, the loss of this valuable element in Spanish society was a serious mistake.

      It is difficult to disentangle Isabella's personal responsibility for the achievements of her reign from those of Ferdinand. But, undoubtedly, she played a large part in establishing the court as a centre of influence. With her blue eyes, her fair or chestnut hair, and her jewels and magnificent dresses, she must have made a striking figure. At the same time display was matched with religious feeling. Her choice of spiritual advisers brought to the fore such different and remarkable men as Hernando de Talavera and Cardinal Cisneros (Jiménez de Cisneros, Francisco, Cardenal). A policy of reforming the Spanish churches had begun early in the 15th century, but the movement gathered momentum only under Isabella and Talavera. When in 1492 Talavera became archbishop of Granada, his place at the queen's side was taken by Cisneros, for whom the monarchs secured the crucial position of archbishop of Toledo in 1495. The monarchs were interested in the reform of the secular clergy and still more in that of the orders of monks, friars, and nuns; Isabella took a particular interest in the reform of the Poor Clares (Poor Clare), an order of Franciscan nuns. Although when she died there was still much to be done, the rulers and Cisneros together had gone far toward achieving their goals.

      Although Isabella was intensely pious and orthodox in her beliefs and was granted with Ferdinand the title of the “Catholic Kings” by Pope Alexander VI, she could be both imperious and pertinacious in her dealings with the papacy. This was particularly true when she thought the pope was making bad appointments to Spanish benefices or in any way encroaching on the customary rights of the crown over the Spanish churches. For example, for the vacant see of Cuenca in 1478 she rejected the Italian cardinal appointed by the pope, who four years later accepted her alternative Spanish candidate. Subsequently, she successfully rejected the suggestion that the pope's nephew should become archbishop of Sevilla. In seeking to control appointments to Castilian sees, Isabella was not simply inspired by national sentiments. She also sought candidates of high standards; judged by her choices of men such as Talavera and Cisneros, Isabella was remarkably effective in achieving her objective.

      Isabella was almost as interested in education as she was in religion. After she reached the age of 30, she acquired proficiency in Latin. At court she encouraged such notable scholars as Pietro Martire d'Anghiera (Peter Martyr d'Anghiera), whom she set up as the head of a new palace school for the sons of the nobility. Naturally, many of the outstanding literary works of her reign, such as Antonio de Nebrija's Gramática Castellana (1492; “Castilian Grammar”), were dedicated to her. She was also the patron of Spanish and Flemish artists, and part of her extensive collection of pictures survives.

      The last decade of her reign took place against a background of family sorrows brought about by the deaths of her only son and heir, Juan (1497); of her daughter Isabella, queen of Portugal, in childbirth (1498); and of her grandchild Miguel (1500), who might have brought about a personal union between Spain and Portugal. Instead, her daughter Joan, wife of Philip I and mother of the Holy Roman emperor Charles V, became the heiress of Castile. However, this offered little comfort to the queen because by 1501 Joan had already shown signs of the mental imbalance that would later earn her the title of “the Mad.”

      One of the achievements of Isabella's last decade was undoubtedly the success with which she and Ferdinand, acting on her initiative, extended their authority over the military orders of Alcántara (Alcántara, Order of), Calatrava (Calatrava, Order of), and Santiago (Santiago, Order of), thus giving the crown control over their vast property and patronage. These orders had been exploited for too long by the nobility and were the subject of intense rivalry among those who sought to be elected master of one or other of them. In 1487 Ferdinand became grand master of Calatrava, and by 1499 he had acquired the grand masterships of Alcántara and Santiago. With the capture of Granada, the main work of the orders had been done, and a process that envisaged their ultimate absorption into the lands of the crown was logical and sensible. Throughout her long reign, Isabella also strove to strengthen royal authority at the expense of the Cortes (Spanish parliament) and the towns.

      Good sense and statesmanship were equally reflected in Isabella's will and codicil. Because she left no memoirs, her will is in many ways the most reliable picture of her. In it she sums up her aspirations and her awareness of how much she and Ferdinand had been unable to do. With prudence she comments on the basis of her political program—the unity of the states of the Iberian Peninsula, the maintenance of control over the Strait of Gibraltar (Gibraltar, Strait of), and a policy of expansion into Muslim North Africa, of just rule for the Indians of the New World, and of reform in the church at home. If the overall impression is inevitably piecemeal, it is also clear that Isabella gave to her successors an exceptional document. It assures scholars that, in allotting to Isabella the foremost place among their rulers, Spaniards do not misjudge this remarkable woman.

J.R.L. Highfield

Additional Reading
Biographies of Isabella include William H. Prescott, History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic (1838), available in many later printings; Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Ferdinand and Isabella (1975, reissued 1990); and Peggy K. Liss, Isabel the Queen: Life and Times (1992).

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Isabella — is a variant of Isabel, a feminine given name. Isabella may also refer to:People*Isabella of Mar (c. 1277 1296), first wife of Robert the Bruce *Isabella of Brienne (d. 1360), Countess of Lecce and Brienne *Isabella of Valois (1313 1388), wife of …   Wikipedia

  • Isabella I — • Queen of Castile (1451 1504) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Isabella I     Isabella I     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Isabella — Isabella1 [iz΄ə bel′ə] n. [It] a feminine name: dim. Bella: see ISABEL Isabella2 [iz΄ə bel′ə] 1. Isabella I 1451 1504; wife of Ferdinand V & queen of Castile (1474 1504): gave help to Columbus in his expedition: called Isabella of Castile 2.… …   English World dictionary

  • Isabella — (Кастелламмаре дель Гольфо,Италия) Категория отеля: 4 звездочный отель Адрес: Contrada Cast …   Каталог отелей

  • Isabella — Is a*bel la, n., Isabella color Is a*bel la col or [Said to be named from the Spanish princess Isabella, daughter of king Philip II., in allusion to the color assumed by her shift, which she wore without change from 1601 to 1604, in consequence… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Isabella I. — Isabella I. ist der Name folgender Personen: Isabella I. (Jerusalem) (1170–1205), Königin von Jerusalem Isabella I. (Kastilien) (1451–1504), Königin von Kastilien und Königin von Aragón Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unter …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Isabella II. — Isabella II. ist der Name folgender Personen: Isabella II. (Jerusalem) (1212–1228), Königin von Jerusalem Isabella II. (Spanien) (1830–1904), Königin von Spanien Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit d …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Isabella — (Торре Мелисса,Италия) Категория отеля: Адрес: Contrada Valle Di Casa, 88814 Торре Мелисса …   Каталог отелей

  • Isabella [2] — Isabella (span. u. portug. Isabél, soviel wie Elisabeth), Königinnen von Spanien: 1) I. von Kastilien, Tochter des Königs Johann II. von Kastilien und Leon, geb. 22. April 1451, gest. 26. Nov. 1504 in Medina del Campo, vermählte sich 1469 mit… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Isabella II — Isabella II. (Maria Luise), Königin von Spanien, geb. 10. Oct. 1830, Tochter Ferdinand VII., der zu ihren Gunsten das salische Erbfolgegesetz aufhob, erbte den Thron bei dessen Tode den 29. Sept. 1833 und mit ihm Revolutionen und Bürgerkriege.… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Isabella [1] — Isabella (span.), so v.w. Elisabeth; 1) St. J., geb. 1271, Tochter Peters III. von Aragonien; wurde 1281 mit Dionysius I. von Portugal vermählt u. st. in dem, von ihr erbauten St. Clarenkloster zu Coimbra 1336. Sie wurde 1506 beatisirt u. 1625… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”