/ham"euh dan'/; Pers. /ha ma dahn"/, n.
a city in W Iran. 124,379. Ancient, Ecbatana.

* * *

also spelled  Hamadān , ancient  Ecbatana 
 city, west-central Iran, at the northeastern foot of Mount Alvand (11,716 feet [3,571 metres]), in Hamadān ostān (province). Itself at an elevation of 6,158 feet (1,877 metres), the city dominates the wide, fertile plain of the upper Qareh Sū River. There is a sizable Turkish-speaking minority.

      The city, although certainly an older foundation, has records only from the 1st millennium BC. Hamadan has had many names: it was possibly the Bit Daiukki of the Assyrians, Hangmatana, or Agbatana, to the Medes, and Ecbatana to the Greeks. One of the Median capitals, under Cyrus II (the Great; died 529 BC) and later Achaemenian rulers, it was the site of a royal summer palace. A little east of Hamadan is the Moṣṣalā (Musalla), a natural mound the debris of which includes the remains of ancient Ecbatana, which has never been excavated. The modern city is built partly on this mound.

      Hamadan is mentioned in the Bible (Ezra 6:1–3), and there is a tradition of Jewish association with the town. The putative tomb of Esther located there is, in reality, that of Queen Shushandukt, or Suzan, wife of the Sasanian king Yazdegerd I (d. AD 420) and mother of Bahrām V, the great hunter. She helped establish a Jewish colony in the city and was herself of that faith. Her tomb and the reputed grave of Mordecai, uncle of Esther, are both places of pilgrimage.

      The city was captured by the Arabs in 641 or 642 and for some centuries remained a provincial capital, though important only commercially and culturally. During this period, the city was the home of some of the great thinkers and artists of the Islamic period. The poet and anthologist Abū Tammām composed his Ḥamāsah there in the early 10th century. The noted writer al-Hamdhani was born there a generation later, as was the great Persian-language poet Bābā Ṭāher, whose mausoleum is located in the city. The physician and philosopher Avicenna died in Hamadan in 1037. The list of luminaries with connections to Hamadan continued in later generations. In the second half of the 12th century, the Seljuq Turkish sultans made it their capital, and so it remained for 50 years. To this period dates the building of Gonbad-e ʿAlaviyyān, a mausoleum with fine stucco work.

      About 1220 Hamadan was destroyed by the Mongols; in 1386 it was sacked by Timur (Tamerlane), a Turkic conqueror, and the inhabitants massacred. It was partly restored in the 17th century and subsequently changed hands often between Iranian ruling houses and the Ottomans. In modern times its strategic position has caused a revival. The city was damaged during the Iran-Iraq War (1980–90).

      Modern development is modest. In summer the pleasant climate makes Hamadan a resort, but the winters are long and severe. The Shahnāz Dam provides water for the city. Grain and fruits are grown in abundance, and Hamadan is an important trade centre on the main Tehrān-Baghdad highway. In the Iranian rug trade, Hamadan rugs rank second only to those of Kermān. Pop. (2006) 479,640.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • HAMADAN — HAMADAN, a city situated in the western part of iran . Hamadan is Ahmatha of the Bible (Ezra 6:2) which was the capital city of the Medes (708–550 B.C.E.). It is probable that Jews who were deported from Samaria to Media (II Kings 18:11) in about …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Hamadān — Hamadān, 1) Bezirk der persischen Provinz Irak; 2) Hauptstadt darin, am Fuße des Elwend u. am oberen Kara Su, hat einige Moscheen (eine angeblich mit Esthers u. Mardochais Grab), mehrere Begräbnisse (von Avicenna, Attar u.a., zugleich… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Hamadān — Hamadān, Hauptstadt der gleichnamigen pers. Provinz, 260 km westsüdwestlich von Teheran, in wohlbewässerter Ebene am Nordostfuß des Elwend (Orontes), mit verfallenen Moscheen und Basaren, den Grabmonumenten des Avicenna und (angeblich) der Esther …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Hamadan — Hamădan, das alte Ekbatana, Stadt in der pers. Prov. Irak Adschmi, am östl. Fuße des Elwend, 30.000 E.; daselbst die angeblichen Gräber Esthers und Mardochais (Wallfahrtsort der Juden) …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Hamadan — Hamadan, pers. Stadt in der Provinz Irak Adschemi, das alte Ekbatana, mit 50000 E., schönen Moscheen, Seide , Wolle u. Baumwolleweberei, lebhaftem Verkehr …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Hamadán — Hamadan or Hamedan (همدان en Persa) es una antigua ciudad en el oeste de Irán, localizada aproximadamente a 400 km al sudoeste de Teherán. Su antiguo nombre persa es Hagmatana y en griego clásico Ekbatana. Es el lugar de nacimiento de Shirin… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Hamadan — [ham′ə dan΄] city in W Iran: noted for carpets and rugs made there: pop. 350,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Hamadán — Este artículo trata sobre la ciudad llamada Hamadán. Para la provincia del mismo nombre, véase Provincia de Hamadán. همدان (Hamadán) …   Wikipedia Español

  • hamadan — I. ˈhaməˌdan, |hämə|dän noun ( s) Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: from Hamadan, Iran 1. : a Persian rug made in and around Hamadan usually of wool mixed with camels hair, tied with the Ghiordes knot, and characterized by muted colors and… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Hamadan — Ha|ma|dan 〈m.; od. s, s〉 ein oriental. Teppich, dessen Grundgewebe aus Baumwolle u. dessen Flor aus strapazierfähigen Wolle von Bergschafen besteht [nach der gleichnamigen iran. Stadt] * * * I Hamadan   der, (s)/ s, nach der iranischen Stadt… …   Universal-Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”