/gooh"lahg/, n. (sometimes cap.)
1. the system of forced-labor camps in the Soviet Union.
2. a Soviet forced-labor camp.
3. any prison or detention camp, esp. for political prisoners.
[1970-75; < Russ Gulág, acronym from Glávnoe upravlénie ispravítel'no-trudovýkh lageréi Main Directorate of Corrective Labor Camps]

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System of Soviet labour camps and prisons that from the 1920s to the mid-1950s housed millions of political prisoners and criminals.

The term (an abbreviation of the Russian words for Chief Administration of Corrective Labour Camps) was largely unknown in the West until the 1973 publication of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's Gulag Archipelago. The Gulag consisted of hundreds of camps, under the control of the secret police, where prisoners felled timber, worked in the mines, or laboured on construction projects. At least 10% died each year from harsh working conditions, inadequate food, and summary executions. The Gulag reached its height in the years of collectivization of Soviet agriculture (1929–32), during Joseph Stalin's purges (1936–38), and immediately after World War II, shrinking only after Stalin's death in 1953. An estimated 15–30 million Russians died in the camps.

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abbreviation  of Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey 

      (Russian: “Chief Administration of Corrective Labour Camps”), the system of Soviet labour camps and accompanying detention and transit camps and prisons that from the 1920s to the mid-1950s housed the political prisoners and criminals of the Soviet Union. At its height the Gulag imprisoned millions of people. The name Gulag had been largely unknown in the West until the publication of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's (Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich) The Gulag Archipelago, 1918–1956 (1973), whose title likens the labour camps scattered through the Soviet Union to an island chain.

      A system of forced-labour camps was first inaugurated by a Soviet decree of April 15, 1919, and underwent a series of administrative and organizational changes in the 1920s, ending with the founding of Gulag in 1930 under the control of the secret police, OGPU (later, the NKVD and the KGB). The Gulag had a total inmate population of about 100,000 in the late 1920s, when it underwent an enormous expansion coinciding with the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's collectivization of agriculture. By 1936 the Gulag held a total of 5,000,000 prisoners, a number that was probably equaled or exceeded every subsequent year until Stalin died in 1953. Besides rich or resistant peasants arrested during collectivization, persons sent to the Gulag included purged Communist Party members and military officers, German and other Axis prisoners of war (during World War II), members of ethnic groups suspected of disloyalty, Soviet soldiers and other citizens who had been taken prisoner or used as slave labourers by the Germans during the war, suspected saboteurs and traitors, dissident intellectuals, ordinary criminals, and many utterly innocent people who were hapless victims of Stalin's purges.

      Inmates filled the Gulag in three major waves: in 1929–32, the years of the collectivization of Soviet agriculture; in 1936–38, at the height of Stalin's purges; and in the years immediately following World War II. Solzhenitsyn claimed that between 1928 and 1953 “some forty to fifty million people served long sentences in the Archipelago.” Figures supposedly compiled by the Gulag administration itself (and released by Soviet historians in 1989) show that a total of 10 million people were sent to the camps in the period from 1934 to 1947. The true figures remain unknown.

      At its height the Gulag consisted of many hundreds of camps, with the average camp holding 2,000–10,000 prisoners. Most of these camps were “corrective labour colonies” in which prisoners felled timber, laboured on general construction projects (such as the building of canals and railroads), or worked in mines. Most prisoners laboured under the threat of starvation or execution if they refused. It is estimated that the combination of very long working hours, harsh climatic and other working conditions, inadequate food, and summary executions killed off at least 10 percent of the Gulag's total prisoner population each year. Western scholarly estimates of the total number of deaths in the Gulag in the period from 1918 to 1956 range from 15 to 30 million.

      The Gulag started to shrink soon after Stalin's death; hundreds of thousands of prisoners were amnestied from 1953 to 1957, by which time the camp system had returned to its proportions of the early 1920s. Indeed, the Gulag was officially disbanded; its activities were absorbed by various economic ministries, and the remaining camps were grouped in 1955 under a new body, GUITK (Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-Trudovykh Kolony, or “Chief Administration of Corrective Labour Colonies”).

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Gulag — (russisch Главное управление лагерей/ oder Главное управление исправительно трудовых лагерей и колоний Glawnoje uprawlenije isprawitelno trudowych lagerej i kolonij anhören?/i) – auch GULag – ist …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • gulag — /gu lak/, it. / gulag/ s.m., russo [acronimo di G(lavnoe ) u(pravlenie ) lag(erej ) direzione generale dei campi (di lavoro) ]. 1. [campo di lavoro coatto secondo l ordinamento sovietico]. 2. (estens.) [ambiente di lavoro chiuso e repressivo]… …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • gulag — gȕlāg m <N mn āzi> DEFINICIJA pov. sustav staljinističkih kaznenih i radnih logora u kojima je likvidirano više milijuna ljudi SINTAGMA arhipelag gulag naziv za cjelinu takvih logora ETIMOLOGIJA krat., rus. Glávnoe upravlénie ispravítelno… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

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  • gulag — ‘Campo de concentración de la antigua Unión Soviética’. Su plural es gulags (→ plural, 1h) …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

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  • gulag — / ˈɡulaɡ, russo ɡuˈlAk/ [vc. russa, abbr. di G(lavnoe) U(pravlenie ispravitel notrudovych) Lag(erei) «amministrazione generale dei campi di lavoro correzionale»] s. m. inv. 1. (nell ex URSS) campo di lavoro forzato, lager (ted.) 2. (est.) sistema …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

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