/dis'loh kay"sheuhn/, n.1. an act or instance of dislocating.2. the state of being dislocated.3. Crystall. (in a crystal lattice) a line about which there is a discontinuity in the lattice structure. Cf. defect (def. 3).[1350-1400; ME dislocacioun; see DISLOCATE, -ION]
* * *Displacement of the bones of a joint.It disrupts the ligaments, muscles, and capsule (encasing membrane) holding the joint in place. The joint, painful and tender, appears misshapen and swollen, with discoloration of the overlying skin. The patient cannot use the joint and often feels a grating or grinding sensation on trying to move it. The bones must be returned to their normal position (reduction) and the joint kept immobile until healed. Recurrent and congenital dislocations usually require surgical reconstruction.
* * *▪ joint damagein physiology and medicine, displacement of the bones forming a joint, with consequent disruption of tissues.Dislocations are caused by stresses forceful enough to overcome the resistance of the ligaments, muscles, and capsule that hold the joint in place. A dislocation is called simple when the joint surfaces are not exposed to the air; it is called compound when the joint surfaces are exposed by the destruction of overlying skin or by the end of a bone piercing the skin.A congenital dislocation is present at birth as the result of defective formation of the joint. A recurrent, or habitual, dislocation (repeated dislocation of the same joint) may be the result of improper healing of an old injury or may be natural, as in “double joints,” common in fingers and toes, which are the result of loose ligamentation. A pathological dislocation occurs as the result of a disease, such as Marfan's syndrome, which weakens the capsule and ligaments about the joint.Symptoms of dislocation include pain and tenderness at the site, a sensation of grating or grinding on attempting to use the part, and inability to use the part. Common signs are deformed appearance of the joint, swelling of surrounding tissue, and discoloration of the overlying skin. X-ray examination is useful to indicate the extent of the injury. Simple dislocations are treated by returning the bones to their normal position (reduction) by manipulation or occasionally by traction. The joint is then kept immobile until healing is complete. Recurrent and congenital dislocations are special problems that usually require surgical reconstruction of the joint.
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