—dieter, n./duy"it/, n., v., dieted, dieting, adj.n.1. food and drink considered in terms of its qualities, composition, and its effects on health: Milk is a wholesome article of diet.2. a particular selection of food, esp. as designed or prescribed to improve a person's physical condition or to prevent or treat a disease: a diet low in sugar.3. such a selection or a limitation on the amount a person eats for reducing weight: No pie for me, I'm on a diet.4. the foods eaten, as by a particular person or group: The native diet consists of fish and fruit.5. food or feed habitually eaten or provided: The rabbits were fed a diet of carrots and lettuce.6. anything that is habitually provided or partaken of: Television has given us a steady diet of game shows and soap operas.v.t.7. to regulate the food of, esp. in order to improve the physical condition.8. to feed.v.i.9. to select or limit the food one eats to improve one's physical condition or to lose weight: I've dieted all month and lost only one pound.10. to eat or feed according to the requirements of a diet.adj.11. suitable for consumption with a weight-reduction diet; dietetic: diet soft drinks.[1175-1225; (n.) ME diete < AF, OF < L diaeta < Gk díaita way of living, diet, equiv. to dia- DIA- + -aita (akin to aîsa share, lot); (v.) ME dieten (transit.) < AF, OF dieter, deriv. of the n.]diet2/duy"it/, n.1. the legislative body of certain countries, as Japan.2. the general assembly of the estates of the former Holy Roman Empire.[1400-50; late ME < ML dieta public assembly, appar. the same word as L diaeta (see DIET1) with sense affected by L dies day]
* * *Japanese national legislature.Under the Meiji Constitution, the Diet had two houses, a House of Peers and a House of Representatives, with equal powers. The Diet's role was largely negative: it could block legislation and veto budgets. It was reconstituted under the U.S.-sponsored constitution of 1947. The (upper) House of Councillors seats 247 members, and the (lower) House of Representatives has 480 members. The prime minister, who leads the majority party in the lower house, must be a member. The House of Representatives can override the House of Councillors on most issues.
* * *▪ German governmentlegislature of the German empire, or Holy Roman Empire, from the 12th century to 1806.In the Carolingian empire, meetings of the nobility and higher clergy were held during the royal progresses, or court journeys, as occasion arose, to make decisions affecting the good of the state. After 1100, definitively, the emperor called the Diet to meet in an imperial or episcopal city within the imperial frontiers. The members of the Diet were originally the princes, including bishops of princely status, but counts and barons were included later. After 1250 the representatives of imperial and episcopal cities were recognized as members of the Diet, and at this time the electoral princes, whose duty it was to elect the emperor, began to meet separately, a division formally confirmed in the Golden Bull of Charles IV (1356), which established the number of the electoral princes as seven. (See elector.)Beginning in the 12th century the power of the emperor gradually declined; by 1489 the Diet was divided into three colleges that met separately: (1) the electoral college of seven lay and ecclesiastical princes presided over by the imperial chancellor, the archbishop of Mainz; (2) the college of the princes with 33 ecclesiastical princes and 61 lay princes, presided over by the archbishop of Salzburg or the archduke of Austria; (3) the college of the cities presided over by the representative of the city in which the Diet met. The college of cities was separated eventually into the Rhine and Swabian divisions, the former having 14 towns and the latter 37.The decisions taken separately by the three colleges were combined in an agreed statement the text of which was sent to the emperor as “the resolution of the empire” (conclusum imperii). All the decisions of the Diet forming the resolution were called the “recess of the empire” (Reichsabschied). The emperor could ratify part of the recess or the whole of it, but he could not modify the words of the recess. Until the 17th century the Diet possessed effective legal power, including the decision of war or peace, but the Peace of Westphalia (Westphalia, Peace of) (1648) spelled the final breakdown in the conception of a single German empire united by its members' common aims. The three-college Diet was replaced by an assembly of sovereign princes, usually represented by envoys, indifferent to the emperor's wishes and divided in religious and political aims. The Diet of Regensburg of 1663 prolonged itself indefinitely into permanent session and thereafter was called the Regensburg Diet, or the Everlasting Diet (Immerwährender Reichstag). The emperor was now represented by a prince of the empire as his commissioner; a jurist was appointed as subcommissioner; and the elector of Mainz, archchancellor of the empire, had charge of the business of the meetings of the Diet. This assembly of representatives without legislative power disappeared when the Holy Roman Empire collapsed under Napoleon's attack in 1806.The name Reichstag was revived in 1871 for the legislature of the German Empire and retained by the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich; the name was abandoned in the two Germanies after World War II.▪ Japanese governmentalso called (1889–1947) Imperial Diet , Japanese Kokkai (“National Assembly”) , or Teikoku Gikai (“Imperial Assembly”)the national legislature of Japan.Under the Meiji Constitution of 1889, the Imperial Diet was established on the basis of two houses with coequal powers. The upper house, the House of Peers (Kizokuin), was almost wholly appointive. Initially, its membership was slightly less than 300, but it was subsequently increased to approximately 400. The peers were intended to represent the top rank and quality of the nation and to serve as a check upon the lower house. The pre-World War II House of Representatives (Shūgiin) was originally composed of 300 members, all elected, but gradually this number was increased to 466. Its powers were in many respects largely negative. Without Diet approval, no bill could become law. The government did have the right to issue imperial ordinances in case of an emergency, but if these were to remain in effect the Diet had to approve them at its next session. There was one significant limitation upon the traditional legislative control over the purse strings. If the Diet did not pass the budget in a manner acceptable to the government, the government had the right to apply the budget for the previous year. This provision was borrowed from Prussian practice. The Diet did not initiate important legislation; this was chiefly the function of the executive.Under the Constitution of 1947 the Diet, renamed Kokkai, was drastically altered both in structure and in powers. There remained two houses, the House of Representatives (Shūgiin) and the House of Councillors (Sangiin). The latter takes the place of the old House of Peers and has a membership of 250 consisting of two categories: 100 councillors elected from the nation at large with the remaining 152 elected as prefectural representatives. Every voter may cast a ballot for one candidate in each category, giving him a total of two votes. The members of the House of Councillors serve for six years, with one-half of the members standing for election every three years. The House of Councillors cannot be dissolved in case of conflict between it and the executive branch. The balance of power, though, lies in the lower house, where general agreement with executive policy must prevail. In case of a deadlock between the two houses over the selection of a prime minister, the vote of the lower house takes precedence. The budget must be submitted first to the lower house; if the two houses cannot agree, the position of the lower house prevails after 30 days. This same provision applies to treaties. With other legislation, if the councillors reject a bill or refuse to act upon it within 60 days, the House of Representatives can make it law by repassing it by a two-thirds majority of the members present.The House of Representatives has 467 members elected from 118 electoral districts. Each district has from three to five representatives, but the voter casts only one ballot, with the candidates receiving the highest number of votes being elected. Lower-house members are elected for a term of four years, but the house can be dissolved at any time by the government, in which case elections must be held within 40 days.As in the past, the Japanese Diet rarely initiates important legislation; such laws ordinarily come to the Diet under cabinet sponsorship. However, an individual member's bill can be introduced in the lower house if it has been signed by 20 or more members, and in the upper house with the signature of 10 or more members. Under Diet law, the committee system has been drastically altered to accord more with U.S. practice. Each house has slightly more than 20 standing committees dealing with such subjects as foreign affairs, finance, and education. Government legislation goes first to the appropriate committee, where it is examined and often vigorously debated. Membership on these committees is determined by the Diet in rough accordance with the party ratios in each house. A member normally retains his assignments as long as he sits in the Diet. Thus he develops some detailed knowledge and may provide a challenge to government policymakers of opposing parties or convictions.Japanese politics in the second half of the 20th century has revolved around the Diet. That body is no longer on the periphery as it was under the Meiji Constitution. Moreover, with all adults over 21 eligible to vote, the Diet is more representative of the public will than it has been at any time in the past. Certain historic problems remain, however. Large-scale scandals are not lacking; the basic causes of corruption have not been eliminated. Even provided with constitutional support, the Diet has had some difficulty establishing itself as a respected body in the eyes of many of the Japanese people. Slowly, however, democratic procedures have acquired a tradition and an acceptance in Japan.
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